Red velikosti (energija)

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Seznam primerja energijo v joulih (J) po velikosti

Red velikosti za energijo
Jouli (J) SI predpona Velikost Primer
10−33   2×10−33 J Povprečna kinetična energija tranlacijskega gibanja molekule pri temperaturi 100 pikokelvinov
10−28   6.6×10−28 J energija AM radio fotona (1 MHz) (4×10−9 eV)[1]
10−24 Jokto- (yJ) 1.6×10−24 J energija fotona mikrovalovne pečice (2.45 GHz) (1×10−5 eV)[2][3]
10−23   2×10−23 J Povprečna kinetična energija translacijskega gibanja molekule v Boomerang Nebula, najhladnejšega prostora izven laboratorija, 1 kelvin[4][5]
10−22   2-3000×10−22 J energija IR infrardečega fotona
10−21 Zepto- (zJ) 1.7×10−21 J 1 kJ/mol, preveddno v energijo molekule[6]
2.1×10−21 J Toplotna energija v vsaki prostostni stopnji molekule pri 25 °C (kT/2) (0.01 eV)[7]
2.856×10−21 J Po Landauerjevem principu, najmanjša potrebna energija pri 25 °C za spremembno enega bita informacije
3–7×10−21 J energija van der Waalsove sile med atomi (0.02–0.04 eV)[8][9]
7–22×10−21 J energija vodikove zveze (0.04 to 0.13 eV)[8][10]
10−20  
10−19   1.6×10−19 J ≈1 elektronvolt (eV)[11]
3–5×10−19 J energija fotonov v vidni svetlobi[12][13]
3–14×10−19 J energija kovalentne vezi (2–9 eV)[8][14]
5–200×10−19 J energija fotonov Ultravijolične svetlobe
10−18 Ato- (aJ)    
10−17   2-2000×10−17 J energija fotonov X-žarkov[15]
10−16      
10−15 Femto- (fJ)    
10−14   > 2×10−14 J energija fotonov gama žarkov
8.2×10−14 J masa/energija elektrona (rest mass-energy) v mirovanju [16]
1.6×10−13 J
10−12 Piko- (pJ) 2.3×10−12 J kinetična energija nevtrina proizvedenega v D-T fuziji; uporabna za zagon fisije (14.1 MeV)[17][18]
10−11   3.4×10−11 J povprečna celotna energija jedrske fisije enega U-235 atoma (215 MeV)[19][20]
10−10   1.5030×10−10 J masa/energija (rest mass-energy) protona v mirovanju [21]
1.505×10−10 J masa/energija (rest mass-energy) nevtrona v mirovanju[22]
1.6×10−10 J 1 gigaelektronvolt (GeV)[23]
3.0×10−10 J masa/energija (rest mass-energy) devterona v mirovanju[24]
6.0×10−10 J masa/energija (rest mass-energy) alfa delca v mirovanju[25]
10−9 nano- (nJ) 1.6×10−9 J 10 GeV[26]
8×10−9 J začetna operativna energija za CERN Large Electron Positron Collider leta 1989 (50 GeV)[27][28]
10−8   1.3×10−8 J masa/energija (mass-energy) W bozona (80.4 GeV)[29][30]
1.5×10−8 J masa/energija (mass-energy) Z bozona (91.2 GeV)[31][32]
1.6×10−8 J 100 GeV[33]
2×10−8 J masa/energija (mass-energy) delca, ki naj ni bil Higgsov bozon(125.3 GeV)[34]
6.4×10−8 J operativna energija protona aceleratorja CERN Super Proton Synchrotron leta 1976[35][36]
10−7   1×10−7 J ≡ 1 erg[37]
1.6×10−7 J 1 TeV (teraelektronvolt)
5.6×10−7 J energija protona CERN Large Hadron Collider leta 2011 (3.5 TeV)[38][39]
10−6 Mikro- (µJ)    
10−5      
10−4      
10−3 Mili- (mJ)    
10−2 Centi- (cJ)    
10−1 Deci- (dJ) 1.1×10−1 J energija padajočega 50 centovega kovanca ameriškega dolarja z višine 1 meter[40][41]
100 J 1 J ≡ 1 N•m newtonmeter
1 J ≡ 1 W•s vatsekunda
1 J kinetična energija majhnega jabolka (~100gramov z višine 1 meter)[42]) falls 1 meter against Earth's gravity[43]
1 J potrebna energija za segrevanje 1 grama suhega, hladnega zraka za 1-stopinjo Celsiusa[44]
1.4 J ≈ 1 ft•lbf (čevelj-funt-sila)
4.184 J ≡ 1 kalorija
4.1868 J ≡ 1 International (Para) kalorika[45]
8 J Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin limit, teoretični zgornji limit energije kozmičnega žarka iz oddaljenega izvora[46][47]
101 Deka- (daJ) 5×101 J Najbolj energetični kozmični žarek kdajkoli detektiran, leta 1991[48]
102 Hekta- (hJ) 1×102 J energija kapacitatorja bliskavice žepnega fotoaparata (100–400 µF @ 330 V)[49][50]
3×102 J energija smrtne doze X-žarkov[51]
3×102 J kinetčina energija povprečnega človeka, ki skoči kolikor more[52][53][54]
3.3×102 J entalpija taljenja 1 g ledu[55]
> 3.6×102 J kinetična energija 800 g kopja z hitrsotjo 30 m/s[56] by elite javelin throwers[57]
5–20×102 J energija bliskavice fotoaprata v fotografskem studiju[58]
6.0×102 J kinetična energija 2 kg moškega diska [59] z hitrostjo 24,4 m/s
6×102 J energija 10 vatne svetilke v eni minuti
7.5×102 J energija ene konjske sile v eni sekundi
7.8×102 J
103 Kilo- (kJ) 1.1×103 J ≈ 1 (British thermal unit) (BTU), odvisno od temperature[37]
1.4×103 J celotna energija sončnega sevavanja na en kvadratni meter v eni sekundi
1.8×103 J kinetična energija krogle puške M16 (5.56x45mm NATO, 4,1 g pri hitrosti 930 m/s)
2.3×103 J Entalpija za uparjenje 1 g vode v paro
3×103 J
3.4×103 J
3.6×103 J ≡ 1 W•h (watt-hour)[37]
4.2×103 J sproščena energija pri eksploziji 1 grama TNT
4.2×103 J ≈ 1 Kilokalorija (pri hrani)
~7×103 J
9×103 J energija ene alkalne AA baterije
104   1.7×104 J sproščena energija pri metabolizmu 1 grama karbohidratov [60] or protein[61]
3.8×104 J sproščena energija pri metabolizmu 1 grama maščobe [62]
4–5×104 J sproščena energija pri zgorevanju 1 grama bencina[63]
5×104 J kinetična energgija 1 grama snovi hitrosti 10 km/s[64]
105   3×105 J15×105 J
5×105 J kinetična energija 1 grama meteorja pri zadetko z zemljo
106 Mega- (MJ) 1×106 J kinetična energija 2 tonskega avtomobila hitrosti 32 m/s
1.2×106 J kalorična energija čokoladne tablice Snickers [65]
3.6×106 J = 1 kWh kilovatna ura elektrike
8.4×106 J kalorična vrednost hrane z en dan (2000 Kcal)[66][67]
107   1×107 J kinetiča energija projektila prtotitankovsega ISU-152 [68][navedi vir]
1.1×107 J predlagana kalorična vrednost hrane za srednje aktivnega moškega (2600 Kcal)[66][69]
3.7×107 J $1 dolar elektrike pri ceni $0.10/kWh [70][71][72]
4×107 J sproščena energija pri zgorevanje 1 kubiičnega metra zemeljskega plina[73]
4.2×107 J Kalorična vrednost hrane plavalcaMichael Phelpsa v enem dnevu med treningom[74]
6.3×107 J teoretično najmanjša energija potrebna za pospešek 1 kg snovi do izhodne hitrosti (ne upeštavamo zračnega upora)[75]
108   1×108 J kinetična energijha 55 tonskega letala pri pristajalni hitrosti (59 m/s ali 115 vozlov)
1.1×108 J ≈ 1 therm,
1.1×108 J ≈ 1 poraba energije kolesarja na Tour de France
7.3×108 J ≈ sproščena energija pri zgorevanju 16 kg nafte
109 Giga- (GJ) 1 .. 10×109 J povprečna sproščena energina pri udarcu strele
1.1×109 J
1.4x109 J teoretično najmanjša energija za staljenje tone jekla (380 kW•h)[76][77]
2.0x109 J energija v 61 litrskem tanku bencina
2.0×109 J Planckova energija
3.3×109 J povprečna porabljena energija za bitje srca v 80-ih letih življenja
4.5×109 J povprečna poraba lektrične energije hladilnika v enem letu[78][79]
6.1×109 J ≈ energija enega sodčka nafte
1010   2.3×1010 J kinetična energija Airbus A380a pri potovalni hitrosti
4.2×1010 J ≈ energija ene tone nafte
5×1010 J energija bombe Massive Ordnance Air Blast druga najmočnejša nejedrska bomba[80][81]
7.3×1010 J porabljena energija povprečnega ameriškega avtomobila v enem letu[82][83][84]
8.6×1010 J ≈ 1 MW•d (megavat-day)[85]
8.8×1010 J sproščena energija pri cepitvi enega kilograma Urana-235[19][20][86]
1011  
1012 Tera- (TJ) 3.4×1012 J energija goriva v letalu Airbus A330-300 (97.530 litrov)[87] of Jet A-1[88])[89]
3.6×1012 J 1 GW•h (gigavat-hour)[90]
4×1012 J električna energija iz enega gorivnega elementa 20-kg CANDU
6.4×1012 J energija goriva v letalu Boeing 747-100B (183.380 litrov)[91] of Jet A-1[88])[92]
1013   1.1×1013 J energija goriva v letalu Airbus A380 (320.000 litrov)[93] of Jet A-1[88])[94]
1.2×1013 J orbitalna kinetična energija vesoljske postaje International Space Station (417 ton)[95] at 7.7 km/s[96])[97]
8.8×1013 J energija atomske bombe Fat Man (21 kiloton)[98][99]
9.0×1013 J teoretična totalna energija 1 grama materije[100]
1014   6×1014 J sproščena energija orkana v eni sekundi[101]
1015 Peta- (PJ) > 1015 J sproščena energija v hudi nevihit[102]
1.0×1015 J
4.2×1015 J sproščena energija pri 1 Megatoni TNT[103]
1016   1×1016 J
1.1×1016 J letna poraba električne energije v Mongoliji
9.0×1016 J masa/energija 1 kg materija (antimaterije)[104]
1017   1×1017 J
1.7×1017 J celotna energija soncčnega sevanja ki zadane zemljo vsako sekundo
2.1×1017 J energija največje testirane atomske bombe - Car bomba 50 Megaton[105][106]
4.2×1017 J letna poraba električne energije na Norveškem[107][108]
8×1017 J sproščena energija 1883 erupcije vulkana Krakatoa
1018 Eksa- (EJ) 1.4×1018 J
1019   1.4×1019 J
1.4×1019J letna proizvodnja elektrike v ZDA leta 2009
5×1019 J
6.4×1019 J letna poraba električne energije v svetu
6.8×1019 J
1020   5.0x1020 J Celotna poraba vseh virov energije v svetu leta 2010 [109][110]
8.0×1020 J ocenjene rezerve urana za generiranje elektrike leta 2005[111][112][113][114]
1021 zeta- (ZJ) 6.9×1021 J ocenjena energija rezerv zemeljskega plina na svetu leta 2010[109][115]
7.9×1021 J ocenjena energija rezerv nafte na svetu leta 2010[109][116]
1022   1.5×1022J celotna energija sončnega sevanja na Zemljo v enem dnevu[117]
2.4×1022 J ocenjena energija rezerv premoga na svetu leta 2010[109][118]
2.9×1022 J ocenjena potencialna energija pri cepitvi rezerv urana-238 z uporabo hitrih reaktorjev
3.9×1022 J ocenjena energija rezerv vseh fosilnih goriv 2010[109][119]
4×1022 J ocenjena energiaja potresa magnitude 9.1–9.3 leta 2004 v Indiji[120]
1023   1×1023 J
2.2×1023 J totalna energija pri cepitvi rezerv urana-238 z uporabo hitrih reaktorjev
5×1023 J
1024 jota- (YJ) 5.5×1024 J totalna energija sončnega sevanja, ki zadane Zemljo v enem letu[121][122]
1025      
1026   1.3×1026 J
3.8×1026 J totalne energija oddanegega sončnega sevanja v eni sekundi[123]
1027      
1028   3.8×1028 J kinetična energija Lune [124][125]
1029   2.1×1029 J Rotacijska energija Zemlje[126][127][128]
1030   1.8×1030 J
1031   3.3×1031 J totalna energija Sonca v enem dnveu[123][129]
1032   2×1032 J
1033   2.7×1033 J Kinetična energija Zemlje v svoji orbiti [130]
1034   1.2×1034 J totalna energija Sonca v enem letu[123][131]
1039   6.6×1039 J teoretična masa/energija Lune
1041   5.4×1041 J teoretična masa/energija Zemlje[132][133]
6.9×1041 J
1043   5×1043 J
1044   1–2×1044 J ocenjena sproščena energija v Supernovi[134] sometimes referred to as a foe
1046   1×1046 J ocenjena sproščena energija v Hipernovi[135]
1047   1.8×1047 J teoretična masa/energija Zemlje Sonca[136][137]
1047   8.8×1047 J GRB 080916C - najbolj močan izbruh žarkov gamna, Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) kdajkoli detektiran [138]
1058   4×1058 J vidna masa/energija v naši galaksiji[139][140]
1059   1×1059 J totalna masa/energija naše galaksije vključno s temno energijo in temno snovjo.[141][142]
1062   1–2×1062 J totalna masa/energija superklustra Virgo Supercluster vključno z temno snovjo[143]
1069   4×1069 J ocenjena masa/energija materije v vidnem vesolju[144]

Glej tudi[uredi | uredi kodo]

Sklici in reference[uredi | uredi kodo]

  1. ^ Calculated: E_photon = hv = 6.626e-34 J-s * 1e6 Hz = 6.6e-28 J. In eV: 6.6e-28 J / 1.6e-19 J/eV = 4.1e-9 eV.
  2. ^ "Frequency of a Microwave Oven". The Physics Factbook. Pridobljeno dne 15 November 2011. 
  3. ^ Calculated: E_photon = hv = 6.626e-34 J-s * 2.45e8 Hz = 1.62e-24 J. In eV: 1.62e-24 J / 1.6e-19 J/eV = 1.0e-5 eV.
  4. ^ "Boomerang Nebula boasts the coolest spot in the Universe". JPL. Pridobljeno dne 13 November 2011. 
  5. ^ Calculated: KE_avg ≈ (3/2) * T * 1.38E-23 = (3/2) * 1 * 1.38E-23 ≈ 2.07E-23 J
  6. ^ Calculated: 1e3 J / 6.022e23 entities per mole = 1.7e-21 J per entity
  7. ^ Calculated: 1.381e-23 J/K * 298.15 K / 2 = 2.1e-21 J
  8. ^ 8,0 8,1 8,2 "Bond Lengths and Energies". Chem 125 notes. UCLA. Pridobljeno dne 13 November 2011. 
  9. ^ Calculated: 2 to 4 kJ/mol = 2e3 J / 6.022e23 molecules/mol = 3.3e-21 J. In eV: 3.3e-21 J / 1.6e-19 J/eV = 0.02 eV. 4e3 J / 6.022e23 molecules/mol = 6.7e-21 J. In eV: 6.7e-21 J / 1.6e-19 J/eV = 0.04 eV.
  10. ^ Calculated: 4 to 13 kJ/mol. 4 kJ/mol = 4e3 J / 6.022e23 molecules/mol = 6.7e-21 J. In eV: 6.7e-21 J / 1.6e-19 eV/J = 0.042 eV. 13 kJ/mol = 13e3 J / 6.022e23 molecules/mol = 2.2e-20 J. In eV: 13e3 J / 6.022e23 molecules/mol / 1.6e-19 eV/J = 0.13 eV.
  11. ^ "CODATA Value: electron volt". NIST. Pridobljeno dne 4 November 2011. 
  12. ^ "BASIC LAB KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS". Pridobljeno dne 5 November 2011. "Visible wavelengths are roughly from 390 nm to 780 nm" 
  13. ^ Calculated: E = h * c / lambda. E_780_nm = 6.6e-34 kg-m^2/s * 3e8 m/s / (780e-9 m) = 2.5e-19 J. E_390 _nm = 6.6e-34 kg-m^2/s * 3e8 m/s / (390e-9 m) = 5.1e-19 J
  14. ^ Calculated: 50 kcal/mol * 4.184 J/calorie / 6.0e22e23 molecules/mol = 3.47e-19 J. (3.47e-19 J / 1.60e-19 eV/J = 2.2 eV.) and 200 kcal/mol * 4.184 J/calorie / 6.0e22e23 molecules/mol = 1.389e-18 J. (7.64e-19 J / 1.60e-19 eV/J = 8.68 eV.)
  15. ^ "Wavelength, Frequency, and Energy". Imagine the Universe. NASA. Pridobljeno dne 15 November 2011. 
  16. ^ "electron mass energy equivalent". NIST. Pridobljeno dne 4 November 2011. 
  17. ^ Muller, Richard A. (2002). "The Sun, Hydrogen Bombs, and the physics of fusion". Pridobljeno dne 5 November 2011. "The neutron comes out with high energy of 14.1 MeV" 
  18. ^ "Conversion from eV to J". NIST. Pridobljeno dne 4 November 2011. 
  19. ^ 19,0 19,1 "Energy From Uranium Fission". HyperPhysics. Pridobljeno dne 8 November 2011. 
  20. ^ 20,0 20,1 "Conversion from eV to J". NIST. Pridobljeno dne 4 November 2011. 
  21. ^ "proton mass energy equivalent". NIST. Pridobljeno dne 4 November 2011. 
  22. ^ "neutron mass energy equivalent". NIST. Pridobljeno dne 4 November 2011. 
  23. ^ "Conversion from eV to J". NIST. Pridobljeno dne 4 November 2011. 
  24. ^ "deuteron mass energy equivalent". NIST. Pridobljeno dne 4 November 2011. 
  25. ^ "alpha particle mass energy equivalent". NIST. Pridobljeno dne 4 November 2011. 
  26. ^ "Conversion from eV to J". NIST. Pridobljeno dne 4 November 2011. 
  27. ^ Myers, Stephen. "The LEP Collider". CERN. Pridobljeno dne 14 November 2011. "the LEP machine energy is about 50 GeV per beam" 
  28. ^ Calculated: 50e9 eV * 1.6e-19 J/eV = 8e-9 J
  29. ^ "W". PDG Live. Particle Data Group. Pridobljeno dne 4 November 2011. 
  30. ^ "Conversion from eV to J". NIST. Pridobljeno dne 4 November 2011. 
  31. ^ Amsler, C.; Doser, M.; Antonelli, M.; Asner, D.; Babu, K.; Baer, H.; Band, H.; Barnett, R.; Bergren, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernardi, G.; Bertl, W.; Bichsel, H.; Biebel, O.; Bloch, P.; Blucher, E.; Blusk, S.; Cahn, R. N.; Carena, M.; Caso, C.; Ceccucci, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chen, M. -C.; Chivukula, R. S.; Cowan, G.; Dahl, O.; d'Ambrosio, G.; Damour, T.; De Gouvêa, A.; Degrand, T. (2008). "Review of Particle Physics⁎". Physics Letters B 667: 1. Bibcode:2008PhLB..667....1P. doi:10.1016/j.physletb.2008.07.018.  uredi
  32. ^ "Conversion from eV to J". NIST. Pridobljeno dne 4 November 2011. 
  33. ^ "Conversion from eV to J". NIST. Pridobljeno dne 4 November 2011. 
  34. ^ "New results indicate that new particle is a Higgs boson". CERN. Pridobljeno dne 9 June 2013. 
  35. ^ Adams, John. "400 GeV Proton Synchrotron". Excertp from the CERN Annual Report 1976. CERN. Pridobljeno dne 14 November 2011. "A circulating proton beam of 400 GeV energy was first achieved in the SPS on 17 June 1976" 
  36. ^ Calculated: 400e9 eV * 1.6e-19 J/eV = 6.4e-8 J
  37. ^ 37,0 37,1 37,2 "Appendix B8—Factors for Units Listed Alphabetically". NIST Guide for the Use of the International System of Units (SI). NIST. Pridobljeno dne 4.11.2011. "1.355818" 
  38. ^ "LHC will run at 7 TeV in 2012". Physics World. Pridobljeno dne 12 November 2011. "3.5 TeV per proton beam" 
  39. ^ Calculated: 3.5e12 eV per beam * 1.6e-19 J/eV = 5.6e-7 J
  40. ^ "Coin specifications". United States Mint. Pridobljeno dne 2 November 2011. "11.340 g" 
  41. ^ Calculated: m*g*h = 11.34e-3 kg * 9.8 m/s^2 * 1 m = 1.1e-1 J
  42. ^ "Apples, raw, with skin (NDB No. 09003)". USDA Nutrient Database. USDA. Pridobljeno dne 8 December 2011. 
  43. ^ Calculated: m*g*h = 1e-1 kg * 9.8 m/s^2 * 1 m = 1 J
  44. ^ "Specific Heat of Dry Air". Engineering Toolbox. Pridobljeno dne 2 November 2011. 
  45. ^ "Footnotes". NIST Guide to the SI. NIST. Pridobljeno dne 4 November 2011. 
  46. ^ "Physical Motivations". ULTRA Home Page (EUSO project). Dipartimento di Fisica di Torino. Pridobljeno dne 12 November 2011. 
  47. ^ Calculated: 5e19 eV * 1.6e-19 J/ev = 8 J
  48. ^ "The Fly's Eye (1981–1993)". HiRes. Pridobljeno dne 14 November 2011. 
  49. ^ "Notes on the Troubleshooting and Repair of Electronic Flash Units and Strobe Lights and Design Guidelines, Useful Circuits, and Schematics". Pridobljeno dne 8 December 2011. "The energy storage capacitor for pocket cameras is typically 100 to 400 uF at 330 V (charged to 300 V) with a typical flash energy of 10 W-s." 
  50. ^ "Teardown: Digital Camera Canon PowerShot |". electroelvis.com. 2012-09-02. Pridobljeno dne 6 June 2013. 
  51. ^ "Ionizing Radiation". General Chemistry Topic Review: Nuclear Chemistry. Bodner Research Web. Pridobljeno dne 5 November 2011. 
  52. ^ "Vertical Jump Test". Topend Sports. Pridobljeno dne 12 December 2011. "41–50 cm (males) 31–40 cm (females)" 
  53. ^ "Mass of an Adult". The Physics Factbook. Pridobljeno dne 13 December 2011. "70 kg" 
  54. ^ Kinetic energy at start of jump = potential energy at high point of jump. Using a mass of 70 kg and a high point of 40 cm => energy = m*g*h = 70 kg * 9.8 m/s^2 * 40e-2 m = 274 J
  55. ^ "Latent Heat of Melting of some common Materials". Engineering Toolbox. Pridobljeno dne 10 June 2013. "334 kJ/kg" 
  56. ^ Young, Michael. "Developing Event Specific Strength for the Javelin Throw". Pridobljeno dne 13 December 2011. "For elite athletes, the velocity of a javelin release has been measured in excess of 30m/s" 
  57. ^ Calculated: 1/2 * 0.8 kg * (30 m/s)^2 = 360 J
  58. ^ Greenspun, Philip. "Studio Photography". Pridobljeno dne 13 December 2011. "Most serious studio photographers start with about 2000 watts-seconds" 
  59. ^ "Discus Throw – Introduction". IAAF. Pridobljeno dne 12 December 2011. 
  60. ^ "Energy Density of Carbohydrates". The Physics Factbook. Pridobljeno dne 5 November 2011. 
  61. ^ "Energy Density of Protein". The Physics Factbook. Pridobljeno dne 5 November 2011. 
  62. ^ "Energy Density of Fats". The Physics Factbook. Pridobljeno dne 5 November 2011. 
  63. ^ "Energy Density of Gasoline". The Physics Factbook. Pridobljeno dne 5 November 2011. 
  64. ^ Calculated: E = 1/2 m*v^2 = 1/2 * (1e-3 kg) * (1e4 m/s)^2 = 5e4 J.
  65. ^ "Candies, MARS SNACKFOOD US, SNICKERS Bar (NDB No. 19155)". USDA Nutrient Database. USDA. Pridobljeno dne 14 November 2011. 
  66. ^ 66,0 66,1 "How to Balance the Food You Eat and Your Physical Activity and Prevent Obesity". Healthy Weight Basics. National Heart Lung and Blood Institutde. Pridobljeno dne 14 November 2011. 
  67. ^ Calculated: 2000 food calories = 2.0e6 cal * 4.184 J/cal = 8.4e6 J
  68. ^ Calculated: 1/2 * m * v^2 = 1/2 * 48.78 kg * (655 m/s)^2 = 1.0e7 J.
  69. ^ Calculated: 2600 food calories = 2.6e6 cal * 4.184 J/cal = 1.1e7 J
  70. ^ "Table 3.3 Consumer Price Estimates for Energy by Source, 1970–2009". Annual Energy Review. US Energy Information Administration. 19 October 2011. Pridobljeno dne 17 December 2011. "$28.90 per million BTU" 
  71. ^ Calculated J per dollar: 1 million BTU/$28.90 = 1e6 BTU / 28.90 dollars * 1.055e3 J/BTU = 3.65e7 J/dollar
  72. ^ Calculated cost per kWh: 1 kWh * 3.60e6 J/kWh / 3.65e7 J/dollar = 0.0986 dollar/kWh
  73. ^ "Energy in a Cubic Meter of Natural Gas". The Physics Factbook. Pridobljeno dne 15 December 2011. 
  74. ^ "The Olympic Diet of Michael Phelps". WebMD. Pridobljeno dne 28 December 2011. 
  75. ^ Cline, James E. D. "Energy to Space". Pridobljeno dne 13 November 2011. "6.27E7 Joules / Kg" 
  76. ^ "ITP Metal Casting: Melting Efficiency Improvement" (PDF). ITP Metal Casting. U.S. Department of Energy. Pridobljeno dne 14 November 2011. "377 kWh/mt" 
  77. ^ Calculated: 380 kW-h * 3.6e6 J/kW-h = 1.37e9 J
  78. ^ "U.S. Household Electricity Uses: A/C, Heating, Appliances". U.S. HOUSEHOLD ELECTRICITY REPORT. EIA. Pridobljeno dne 13 December 2011. "For refrigerators in 2001, the average UEC was 1,239 kWh" 
  79. ^ Calculated: 1239 kWh * 3.6e6 J/kWh = 4.5e9 J
  80. ^ "Top 10 Biggest Explosions". Listverse. Pridobljeno dne 10 December 2011. "a yield of 11 tons of TNT" 
  81. ^ Calculated: 11 tons of TNT-equivalent * 4.184e9 J/ton of TNT-equivalent = 4.6e10 J
  82. ^ "Emission Facts: Average Annual Emissions and Fuel Consumption for Passenger Cars and Light Trucks". EPA. Pridobljeno dne 12 December 2011. "581 gallons of gasoline" 
  83. ^ "200 Mile-Per-Gallon Cars?". Pridobljeno dne 12 December 2011. "a gallon of gas ... 125 million joules of energy" 
  84. ^ Calculated: 581 gallons * 125e6 J/gal = 7.26e10 J
  85. ^ Calculated: 1e6 Watts * 86400 seconds/day = 8.6e10 J
  86. ^ Calculated: 3.44e-10 J/U-235-fission * 1e-3 kg / (235 amu per U-235-fission * 1.66e-27 amu/kg) = 8.82e-10 J
  87. ^ "A330-300 Dimensions & key data". Airbus. Pridobljeno dne 12 December 2011. "97530 litres" 
  88. ^ 88,0 88,1 88,2 http://www.bp.com/liveassets/bp_internet/aviation/air_bp/STAGING/local_assets/downloads_pdfs/a/air_bp_products_handbook_04004_1.pdf
  89. ^ Calculated: 97530 liters * 0.804 kg/L * 43.15 MJ/kg = 3.38e12 J
  90. ^ Calculated: 1e9 Watts * 3600 seconds/hour
  91. ^ "747 Classics Technical Specs". Boeing. Pridobljeno dne 12 December 2011. "183,380 L" 
  92. ^ Calculated: 183380 liters * 0.804 kg/L * 43.15 MJ/kg = 6.36e12 J
  93. ^ "A380-800 Dimensions & key data". Airbus. Pridobljeno dne 12 December 2011. "320,000 L" 
  94. ^ Calculated: 320,000 l * 0.804 kg/L * 43.15  MJ/kg = 11.1e12 J
  95. ^ "International Space Station: The ISS to Date". NASA. Pridobljeno dne 23 August 2011. 
  96. ^ "The wizards of orbits". European Space Agency. Pridobljeno dne 10 December 2011. "The International Space Station, for example, flies at 7.7 km/s in one of the lowest practicable orbits" 
  97. ^ Calculated: E = 1/2 m.v² = 1/2 * 417000 kg * (7700m/s)² = 1.2e13 J
  98. ^ "What was the yield of the Hiroshima bomb?". Warbird's Forum. Pridobljeno dne 4 November 2011. "21 kt" 
  99. ^ Calculated: 21 kt = 21e9 grams of TNT-equivalent * 4.2e3 J/gram TNT-equivalent = 8.8e13 J
  100. ^ "Conversion from kg to J". NIST. Pridobljeno dne 4 November 2011. 
  101. ^ "How much energy does a hurricane release?". FAQ : HURRICANES, TYPHOONS, AND TROPICAL CYCLONES. NOAA. Pridobljeno dne 12 November 2011. 
  102. ^ "The Gathering Storms". COSMOS. Pridobljeno dne 10 December 2011. 
  103. ^ Calculated: 4.2e9 J/ton of TNT-equivalent * 1e6 tons/megaton = 4.2e15 J/megaton of TNT-equivalent
  104. ^ Calculated: E = mc^2 = 1 kg * (2.998e8 m/s)^2 = 8.99e16 J
  105. ^ "The Soviet Weapons Program – The Tsar Bomba". The Nuclear Weapon Archive. Pridobljeno dne 4 November 2011. 
  106. ^ Calculated: 50e6 tons TNT-equivalent * 4.2e9 J/ton TNT-equivalent = 2.1e17 J
  107. ^ "Country Comparison :: Electricity – consumption". The World Factbook. CIA. Pridobljeno dne 11 December 2011. 
  108. ^ Izračunano: 115.6e9 kWh * 3,60e6 J/kWh = 4,16e17 J
  109. ^ 109,0 109,1 109,2 109,3 109,4 "Statistical Review of World Energy 2011". BP. Pridobljeno dne 9 December 2011. 
  110. ^ Calculated: 12002.4e6 tonnes of oil equivalent * 42e9 J/tonne of oil equivalent = 5.0e20 J
  111. ^ Global Uranium Resource
  112. ^ U.S. Energy Information Administration, International Energy Generation
  113. ^ U.S. EIA International Energy Outlook 2007.
  114. ^ Final number is computed. Energy Outlook 2007 shows 15.9% of world energy is nuclear. IAEA estimates conventional uranium stock, at today's prices is sufficient for 85 years. Convert billion kilowatt-hours to joules then: 6.25×1019×0.159×85 = 8.01×1020.
  115. ^ Calculated: "6608.9 trillion cubic feet" => 6608.9e3 billion cubic feet * 0.025 million tonnes of oil equivalent/billion cubic feet * 1e6 tonnes of oil equivalent/million tonnes of oil equivalent * 42e9 J/tonne of oil equivalent = 6.9e21 J
  116. ^ Calculated: "188.8 thousand million tonnes" => 188.8e9 tonnes of oil * 42e9 J/tonne of oil = 7.9e21 J
  117. ^ Calculated: 1.27e14 m^2 * 1370 W/m^2 * 86400 s/day = 1.5e22 J
  118. ^ Calculated: 860938 million tonnes of coal => 860938e6 tonnes of coal * (1/1.5 tonne of oil equivalent / tonne of coal) * 42e9 J/tonne of oil equivalent = 2.4e22 J
  119. ^ Calculated: natural gas + petroleum + coal = 6.9e21 J + 7.9e21 J + 2.4e22 J = 3.9e22 J
  120. ^ "USGS, Harvard Moment Tensor Solution". National Earthquake Information Center, US Geological Survey. 26 December 2004. Pridobljeno dne 9 December 2011. 
  121. ^ Zemlja ima presek 1,274×1014 kvadratnih metrov in Sončna konstanta je 1361 vatov na kvadratni meter.
  122. ^ Calculated: 1.27e14 m^2 * 1370 W/m^2 * 86400 s/day = 5.5e24 J
  123. ^ 123,0 123,1 123,2 "Ask Us: Sun: Amount of Energy the Earth Gets from the Sun". Cosmicopia. NASA. Pridobljeno dne 4 November 2011. 
  124. ^ "Moon Fact Sheet". NASA. Pridobljeno dne 16 December 2011. 
  125. ^ Calculated: KE = 1/2 * m * v^2. v = 1.023e3 m/s. m = 7.349e22 kg. KE = 1/2 * (7.349e22 kg) * (1.023e3 m/s)^2 = 3.845e28 J.
  126. ^ "Moment of Inertia—Earth". Eric Weisstein's World of Physics. Pridobljeno dne 5 November 2011. 
  127. ^ Allain, Rhett. "Rotational energy of the Earth as an energy source". .dotphysics. Science Blogs. Pridobljeno dne 5 November 2011. "the Earth takes 23.9345 hours to rotate" 
  128. ^ Calculated: E_rotational = 1/2 * I * w^2 = 1/2 * (8.0e37 kg m^2) * (2*pi/(23.9345 hour period * 3600 seconds/hour))^2 = 2.1e29 J
  129. ^ Calculated: 3.8e26 J/s * 86400 s/day = 3.3e31 J
  130. ^ http://www.uwgb.edu/DutchS/pseudosc/flipaxis.htm
  131. ^ Calculated: 3.8e26 J/s * 86400 s/day * 365.25 days/year = 1.2e34 J
  132. ^ "Earth: Facts & Figures". Solar System Exploration. NASA. Pridobljeno dne 29 September 2011. 
  133. ^ "Conversion from kg to J". NIST. Pridobljeno dne 4 November 2011. 
  134. ^ Khokhlov, A.; Mueller, E.; Hoeflich, P.; Mueller; Hoeflich (1993). "Light curves of Type IA supernova models with different explosion mechanisms". Astronomy and Astrophysics 270 (1–2): 223–248. Bibcode:1993A&A...270..223K. 
  135. ^ "A Hypernova: The Super-charged Supernova and its link to Gamma-Ray Bursts". Imagine the Universe!. NASA. Pridobljeno dne 9 December 2011. "With a power about 100 times that of the already astonishingly powerful "typical" supernova" 
  136. ^ "Sun Fact Sheet". NASA. Pridobljeno dne 15 October 2011. 
  137. ^ "Conversion from kg to J". NIST. Pridobljeno dne 4 November 2011. 
  138. ^ "Fermi’s record breaking gamma-ray burst". AstronomyNow. 20. februar, 2009. 
  139. ^ Jim Brau. "The Milky Way Galaxy". Pridobljeno dne 4 November 2011. 
  140. ^ "Conversion from kg to J". NIST. Pridobljeno dne 4 November 2011. 
  141. ^ Karachentsev, I. D.; Kashibadze, O. G. (2006). "Masses of the local group and of the M81 group estimated from distortions in the local velocity field". Astrophysics 49(1): 3–18. DOI: 10.1007/s10511-006-0002-6.
  142. ^ "Conversion from kg to J". NIST. Pridobljeno dne 4 November 2011. 
  143. ^ Einasto, M. et al. (December 2007). "The richest superclusters. I. Morphology". Astronomy and Astrophysics 476 (2): 697–711. arXiv:0706.1122. Bibcode:2007A&A...476..697E. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20078037. 
  144. ^ http://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/ask_astro/answers/980211b.html