Red velikosti (energija)

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Seznam primerja energijo v joulih (J) po velikosti

Red velikosti za energijo
Jouli (J) SI predpona Velikost Primer
10−33   2×10−33 J Povprečna kinetična energija tranlacijskega gibanja molekule pri temperaturi 100 pikokelvinov
10−28   6.6×10−28 J energija AM radio fotona (1 MHz) (4×10−9 eV)[1]
10−24 Jokto- (yJ) 1.6×10−24 J energija fotona mikrovalovne pečice (2.45 GHz) (1×10−5 eV)[2][3]
10−23   2×10−23 J Povprečna kinetična energija translacijskega gibanja molekule v Boomerang Nebula, najhladnejšega prostora izven laboratorija, 1 kelvin[4][5]
10−22   2-3000×10−22 J energija IR infrardečega fotona
10−21 Zepto- (zJ) 1.7×10−21 J 1 kJ/mol, preveddno v energijo molekule[6]
2.1×10−21 J Toplotna energija v vsaki prostostni stopnji molekule pri 25 °C (kT/2) (0.01 eV)[7]
2.856×10−21 J Po Landauerjevem principu, najmanjša potrebna energija pri 25 °C za spremembno enega bita informacije
3–7×10−21 J energija van der Waalsove sile med atomi (0.02–0.04 eV)[8][9]
7–22×10−21 J energija vodikove zveze (0.04 to 0.13 eV)[8][10]
10−20  
10−19   1.6×10−19 J ≈1 elektronvolt (eV)[11]
3–5×10−19 J energija fotonov v vidni svetlobi[12][13]
3–14×10−19 J energija kovalentne vezi (2–9 eV)[8][14]
5–200×10−19 J energija fotonov Ultravijolične svetlobe
10−18 Ato- (aJ)    
10−17   2-2000×10−17 J energija fotonov X-žarkov[15]
10−16      
10−15 Femto- (fJ)    
10−14   > 2×10−14 J energija fotonov gama žarkov
8.2×10−14 J masa/energija elektrona (rest mass-energy) v mirovanju [16]
1.6×10−13 J
10−12 Piko- (pJ) 2.3×10−12 J kinetična energija nevtrina proizvedenega v D-T fuziji; uporabna za zagon fisije (14.1 MeV)[17][18]
10−11   3.4×10−11 J povprečna celotna energija jedrske fisije enega U-235 atoma (215 MeV)[19][20]
10−10   1.5030×10−10 J masa/energija (rest mass-energy) protona v mirovanju [21]
1.505×10−10 J masa/energija (rest mass-energy) nevtrona v mirovanju[22]
1.6×10−10 J 1 gigaelektronvolt (GeV)[23]
3.0×10−10 J masa/energija (rest mass-energy) devterona v mirovanju[24]
6.0×10−10 J masa/energija (rest mass-energy) alfa delca v mirovanju[25]
10−9 nano- (nJ) 1.6×10−9 J 10 GeV[26]
8×10−9 J začetna operativna energija za CERN Large Electron Positron Collider leta 1989 (50 GeV)[27][28]
10−8   1.3×10−8 J masa/energija (mass-energy) W bozona (80.4 GeV)[29][30]
1.5×10−8 J masa/energija (mass-energy) Z bozona (91.2 GeV)[31][32]
1.6×10−8 J 100 GeV[33]
2×10−8 J masa/energija (mass-energy) delca, ki naj ni bil Higgsov bozon(125.3 GeV)[34]
6.4×10−8 J operativna energija protona aceleratorja CERN Super Proton Synchrotron leta 1976[35][36]
10−7   1×10−7 J ≡ 1 erg[37]
1.6×10−7 J 1 TeV (teraelektronvolt)
5.6×10−7 J energija protona CERN Large Hadron Collider leta 2011 (3.5 TeV)[38][39]
10−6 Mikro- (µJ)    
10−5      
10−4      
10−3 Mili- (mJ)    
10−2 Centi- (cJ)    
10−1 Deci- (dJ) 1.1×10−1 J energija padajočega 50 centovega kovanca ameriškega dolarja z višine 1 meter[40][41]
100 J 1 J ≡ 1 N•m newtonmeter
1 J ≡ 1 W•s vatsekunda
1 J kinetična energija majhnega jabolka (~100gramov z višine 1 meter)[42]) falls 1 meter against Earth's gravity[43]
1 J potrebna energija za segrevanje 1 grama suhega, hladnega zraka za 1-stopinjo Celsiusa[44]
1.4 J ≈ 1 ft•lbf (čevelj-funt-sila)
4.184 J ≡ 1 kalorija
4.1868 J ≡ 1 International (Para) kalorika[45]
8 J Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin limit, teoretični zgornji limit energije kozmičnega žarka iz oddaljenega izvora[46][47]
101 Deka- (daJ) 5×101 J Najbolj energetični kozmični žarek kdajkoli detektiran, leta 1991[48]
102 Hekta- (hJ) 1×102 J energija kapacitatorja bliskavice žepnega fotoaparata (100–400 µF @ 330 V)[49][50]
3×102 J energija smrtne doze X-žarkov[51]
3×102 J kinetčina energija povprečnega človeka, ki skoči kolikor more[52][53][54]
3.3×102 J entalpija taljenja 1 g ledu[55]
> 3.6×102 J kinetična energija 800 g kopja s hitrsotjo 30 m/s[56] by elite javelin throwers[57]
5–20×102 J energija bliskavice fotoaprata v fotografskem studiju[58]
6.0×102 J kinetična energija 2 kg moškega diska [59] s hitrostjo 24,4 m/s
6×102 J energija 10 vatne svetilke v eni minuti
7.5×102 J energija ene konjske sile v eni sekundi
7.8×102 J
103 Kilo- (kJ) 1.1×103 J ≈ 1 (British thermal unit) (BTU), odvisno od temperature[37]
1.4×103 J celotna energija sončnega sevavanja na en kvadratni meter v eni sekundi
1.8×103 J kinetična energija krogle puške M16 (5.56x45mm NATO, 4,1 g pri hitrosti 930 m/s)
2.3×103 J Entalpija za uparjenje 1 g vode v paro
3×103 J
3.4×103 J
3.6×103 J ≡ 1 W•h (watt-hour)[37]
4.2×103 J sproščena energija pri eksploziji 1 grama TNT
4.2×103 J ≈ 1 Kilokalorija (pri hrani)
~7×103 J
9×103 J energija ene alkalne AA baterije
104   1.7×104 J sproščena energija pri metabolizmu 1 grama karbohidratov [60] or protein[61]
3.8×104 J sproščena energija pri metabolizmu 1 grama maščobe [62]
4–5×104 J sproščena energija pri zgorevanju 1 grama bencina[63]
5×104 J kinetična energgija 1 grama snovi hitrosti 10 km/s[64]
105   3×105 J15×105 J
5×105 J kinetična energija 1 grama meteorja pri zadetko z zemljo
106 Mega- (MJ) 1×106 J kinetična energija 2 tonskega avtomobila hitrosti 32 m/s
1.2×106 J kalorična energija čokoladne tablice Snickers [65]
3.6×106 J = 1 kWh kilovatna ura elektrike
8.4×106 J kalorična vrednost hrane z en dan (2000 Kcal)[66][67]
107   1×107 J kinetiča energija projektila prtotitankovsega ISU-152 [68][navedi vir]
1.1×107 J predlagana kalorična vrednost hrane za srednje aktivnega moškega (2600 Kcal)[66][69]
3.7×107 J $1 dolar elektrike pri ceni $0.10/kWh [70][71][72]
4×107 J sproščena energija pri zgorevanje 1 kubiičnega metra zemeljskega plina[73]
4.2×107 J Kalorična vrednost hrane plavalcaMichael Phelpsa v enem dnevu med treningom[74]
6.3×107 J teoretično najmanjša energija potrebna za pospešek 1 kg snovi do izhodne hitrosti (ne upeštavamo zračnega upora)[75]
108   1×108 J kinetična energijha 55 tonskega letala pri pristajalni hitrosti (59 m/s ali 115 vozlov)
1.1×108 J ≈ 1 therm,
1.1×108 J ≈ 1 poraba energije kolesarja na Tour de France
7.3×108 J ≈ sproščena energija pri zgorevanju 16 kg nafte
109 Giga- (GJ) 1 .. 10×109 J povprečna sproščena energina pri udarcu strele
1.1×109 J
1.4x109 J teoretično najmanjša energija za staljenje tone jekla (380 kW•h)[76][77]
2.0x109 J energija v 61 litrskem tanku bencina
2.0×109 J Planckova energija
3.3×109 J povprečna porabljena energija za bitje srca v 80-ih letih življenja
4.5×109 J povprečna poraba lektrične energije hladilnika v enem letu[78][79]
6.1×109 J ≈ energija enega sodčka nafte
1010   2.3×1010 J kinetična energija Airbus A380a pri potovalni hitrosti
4.2×1010 J ≈ energija ene tone nafte
5×1010 J energija bombe Massive Ordnance Air Blast druga najmočnejša nejedrska bomba[80][81]
7.3×1010 J porabljena energija povprečnega ameriškega avtomobila v enem letu[82][83][84]
8.6×1010 J ≈ 1 MW•d (megavat-day)[85]
8.8×1010 J sproščena energija pri cepitvi enega kilograma Urana-235[19][20][86]
1011  
1012 Tera- (TJ) 3.4×1012 J energija goriva v letalu Airbus A330-300 (97.530 litrov)[87] of Jet A-1[88])[89]
3.6×1012 J 1 GW•h (gigavat-hour)[90]
4×1012 J električna energija iz enega gorivnega elementa 20-kg CANDU
6.4×1012 J energija goriva v letalu Boeing 747-100B (183.380 litrov)[91] of Jet A-1[88])[92]
1013   1.1×1013 J energija goriva v letalu Airbus A380 (320.000 litrov)[93] of Jet A-1[88])[94]
1.2×1013 J orbitalna kinetična energija vesoljske postaje International Space Station (417 ton)[95] at 7.7 km/s[96])[97]
8.8×1013 J energija atomske bombe Fat Man (21 kiloton)[98][99]
9.0×1013 J teoretična totalna energija 1 grama materije[100]
1014   6×1014 J sproščena energija orkana v eni sekundi[101]
1015 Peta- (PJ) > 1015 J sproščena energija v hudi nevihit[102]
1.0×1015 J
4.2×1015 J sproščena energija pri 1 Megatoni TNT[103]
1016   1×1016 J
1.1×1016 J letna poraba električne energije v Mongoliji
9.0×1016 J masa/energija 1 kg materija (antimaterije)[104]
1017   1×1017 J
1.7×1017 J celotna energija soncčnega sevanja ki zadane zemljo vsako sekundo
2.1×1017 J energija največje testirane atomske bombe - Car bomba 50 Megaton[105][106]
4.2×1017 J letna poraba električne energije na Norveškem[107][108]
8×1017 J sproščena energija 1883 erupcije vulkana Krakatoa
1018 Eksa- (EJ) 1.4×1018 J
1019   1.4×1019 J
1.4×1019J letna proizvodnja elektrike v ZDA leta 2009
5×1019 J
6.4×1019 J letna poraba električne energije v svetu
6.8×1019 J
1020   5.0x1020 J Celotna poraba vseh virov energije v svetu leta 2010 [109][110]
8.0×1020 J ocenjene rezerve urana za generiranje elektrike leta 2005[111][112][113][114]
1021 zeta- (ZJ) 6.9×1021 J ocenjena energija rezerv zemeljskega plina na svetu leta 2010[109][115]
7.9×1021 J ocenjena energija rezerv nafte na svetu leta 2010[109][116]
1022   1.5×1022J celotna energija sončnega sevanja na Zemljo v enem dnevu[117]
2.4×1022 J ocenjena energija rezerv premoga na svetu leta 2010[109][118]
2.9×1022 J ocenjena potencialna energija pri cepitvi rezerv urana-238 z uporabo hitrih reaktorjev
3.9×1022 J ocenjena energija rezerv vseh fosilnih goriv 2010[109][119]
4×1022 J ocenjena energiaja potresa magnitude 9.1–9.3 leta 2004 v Indiji[120]
1023   1×1023 J
2.2×1023 J totalna energija pri cepitvi rezerv urana-238 z uporabo hitrih reaktorjev
5×1023 J
1024 jota- (YJ) 5.5×1024 J totalna energija sončnega sevanja, ki zadane Zemljo v enem letu[121][122]
1025      
1026   1.3×1026 J
3.8×1026 J totalne energija oddanegega sončnega sevanja v eni sekundi[123]
1027      
1028   3.8×1028 J kinetična energija Lune [124][125]
1029   2.1×1029 J Rotacijska energija Zemlje[126][127][128]
1030   1.8×1030 J
1031   3.3×1031 J totalna energija Sonca v enem dnveu[123][129]
1032   2×1032 J
1033   2.7×1033 J Kinetična energija Zemlje v svoji orbiti [130]
1034   1.2×1034 J totalna energija Sonca v enem letu[123][131]
1039   6.6×1039 J teoretična masa/energija Lune
1041   5.4×1041 J teoretična masa/energija Zemlje[132][133]
6.9×1041 J
1043   5×1043 J
1044   1–2×1044 J ocenjena sproščena energija v Supernovi[134] sometimes referred to as a foe
1046   1×1046 J ocenjena sproščena energija v Hipernovi[135]
1047   1.8×1047 J teoretična masa/energija Zemlje Sonca[136][137]
1047   8.8×1047 J GRB 080916C - najbolj močan izbruh žarkov gamna, Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) kdajkoli detektiran [138]
1058   4×1058 J vidna masa/energija v naši galaksiji[139][140]
1059   1×1059 J totalna masa/energija naše galaksije vključno s temno energijo in temno snovjo.[141][142]
1062   1–2×1062 J totalna masa/energija superklustra Virgo Supercluster vključno s temno snovjo[143]
1069   4×1069 J ocenjena masa/energija materije v vidnem vesolju[144]

Glej tudi[uredi | uredi kodo]

Sklici in reference[uredi | uredi kodo]

  1. ^ Calculated: E_photon = hv = 6.626e-34 J-s * 1e6 Hz = 6.6e-28 J. In eV: 6.6e-28 J / 1.6e-19 J/eV = 4.1e-9 eV.
  2. ^ "Frequency of a Microwave Oven". The Physics Factbook. Pridobljeno dne 15 November 2011. 
  3. ^ Calculated: E_photon = hv = 6.626e-34 J-s * 2.45e8 Hz = 1.62e-24 J. In eV: 1.62e-24 J / 1.6e-19 J/eV = 1.0e-5 eV.
  4. ^ "Boomerang Nebula boasts the coolest spot in the Universe". JPL. Pridobljeno dne 13 November 2011. 
  5. ^ Calculated: KE_avg ≈ (3/2) * T * 1.38E-23 = (3/2) * 1 * 1.38E-23 ≈ 2.07E-23 J
  6. ^ Calculated: 1e3 J / 6.022e23 entities per mole = 1.7e-21 J per entity
  7. ^ Calculated: 1.381e-23 J/K * 298.15 K / 2 = 2.1e-21 J
  8. ^ 8,0 8,1 8,2 "Bond Lengths and Energies". Chem 125 notes. UCLA. Pridobljeno dne 13 November 2011. 
  9. ^ Calculated: 2 to 4 kJ/mol = 2e3 J / 6.022e23 molecules/mol = 3.3e-21 J. In eV: 3.3e-21 J / 1.6e-19 J/eV = 0.02 eV. 4e3 J / 6.022e23 molecules/mol = 6.7e-21 J. In eV: 6.7e-21 J / 1.6e-19 J/eV = 0.04 eV.
  10. ^ Calculated: 4 to 13 kJ/mol. 4 kJ/mol = 4e3 J / 6.022e23 molecules/mol = 6.7e-21 J. In eV: 6.7e-21 J / 1.6e-19 eV/J = 0.042 eV. 13 kJ/mol = 13e3 J / 6.022e23 molecules/mol = 2.2e-20 J. In eV: 13e3 J / 6.022e23 molecules/mol / 1.6e-19 eV/J = 0.13 eV.
  11. ^ "CODATA Value: electron volt". NIST. Pridobljeno dne 4 November 2011. 
  12. ^ "BASIC LAB KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS". Pridobljeno dne 5 November 2011. Visible wavelengths are roughly from 390 nm to 780 nm 
  13. ^ Calculated: E = h * c / lambda. E_780_nm = 6.6e-34 kg-m^2/s * 3e8 m/s / (780e-9 m) = 2.5e-19 J. E_390 _nm = 6.6e-34 kg-m^2/s * 3e8 m/s / (390e-9 m) = 5.1e-19 J
  14. ^ Calculated: 50 kcal/mol * 4.184 J/calorie / 6.0e22e23 molecules/mol = 3.47e-19 J. (3.47e-19 J / 1.60e-19 eV/J = 2.2 eV.) and 200 kcal/mol * 4.184 J/calorie / 6.0e22e23 molecules/mol = 1.389e-18 J. (7.64e-19 J / 1.60e-19 eV/J = 8.68 eV.)
  15. ^ "Wavelength, Frequency, and Energy". Imagine the Universe. NASA. Pridobljeno dne 15 November 2011. 
  16. ^ "electron mass energy equivalent". NIST. Pridobljeno dne 4 November 2011. 
  17. ^ Muller, Richard A. (2002). "The Sun, Hydrogen Bombs, and the physics of fusion". Pridobljeno dne 5 November 2011. The neutron comes out with high energy of 14.1 MeV 
  18. ^ "Conversion from eV to J". NIST. Pridobljeno dne 4 November 2011. 
  19. ^ 19,0 19,1 "Energy From Uranium Fission". HyperPhysics. Pridobljeno dne 8 November 2011. 
  20. ^ 20,0 20,1 "Conversion from eV to J". NIST. Pridobljeno dne 4 November 2011. 
  21. ^ "proton mass energy equivalent". NIST. Pridobljeno dne 4 November 2011. 
  22. ^ "neutron mass energy equivalent". NIST. Pridobljeno dne 4 November 2011. 
  23. ^ "Conversion from eV to J". NIST. Pridobljeno dne 4 November 2011. 
  24. ^ "deuteron mass energy equivalent". NIST. Pridobljeno dne 4 November 2011. 
  25. ^ "alpha particle mass energy equivalent". NIST. Pridobljeno dne 4 November 2011. 
  26. ^ "Conversion from eV to J". NIST. Pridobljeno dne 4 November 2011. 
  27. ^ Myers, Stephen. "The LEP Collider". CERN. Pridobljeno dne 14 November 2011. the LEP machine energy is about 50 GeV per beam 
  28. ^ Calculated: 50e9 eV * 1.6e-19 J/eV = 8e-9 J
  29. ^ "W". PDG Live. Particle Data Group. Pridobljeno dne 4 November 2011. 
  30. ^ "Conversion from eV to J". NIST. Pridobljeno dne 4 November 2011. 
  31. ^ Amsler, C.; Doser, M.; Antonelli, M.; Asner, D.; Babu, K.; Baer, H.; Band, H.; Barnett, R.; Bergren, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernardi, G.; Bertl, W.; Bichsel, H.; Biebel, O.; Bloch, P.; Blucher, E.; Blusk, S.; Cahn, R. N.; Carena, M.; Caso, C.; Ceccucci, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chen, M. -C.; Chivukula, R. S.; Cowan, G.; Dahl, O.; d'Ambrosio, G.; Damour, T.; De Gouvêa, A.; Degrand, T. (2008). "Review of Particle Physics⁎". Physics Letters B 667: 1. Bibcode:2008PhLB..667....1P. doi:10.1016/j.physletb.2008.07.018.  uredi
  32. ^ "Conversion from eV to J". NIST. Pridobljeno dne 4 November 2011. 
  33. ^ "Conversion from eV to J". NIST. Pridobljeno dne 4 November 2011. 
  34. ^ "New results indicate that new particle is a Higgs boson". CERN. Pridobljeno dne 9 June 2013. 
  35. ^ Adams, John. "400 GeV Proton Synchrotron". Excertp from the CERN Annual Report 1976. CERN. Pridobljeno dne 14 November 2011. A circulating proton beam of 400 GeV energy was first achieved in the SPS on 17 June 1976 
  36. ^ Calculated: 400e9 eV * 1.6e-19 J/eV = 6.4e-8 J
  37. ^ 37,0 37,1 37,2 "Appendix B8—Factors for Units Listed Alphabetically". NIST Guide for the Use of the International System of Units (SI). NIST. Pridobljeno dne 4.11.2011. 1.355818 
  38. ^ "LHC will run at 7 TeV in 2012". Physics World. Pridobljeno dne 12 November 2011. 3.5 TeV per proton beam 
  39. ^ Calculated: 3.5e12 eV per beam * 1.6e-19 J/eV = 5.6e-7 J
  40. ^ "Coin specifications". United States Mint. Pridobljeno dne 2 November 2011. 11.340 g 
  41. ^ Calculated: m*g*h = 11.34e-3 kg * 9.8 m/s^2 * 1 m = 1.1e-1 J
  42. ^ "Apples, raw, with skin (NDB No. 09003)". USDA Nutrient Database. USDA. Pridobljeno dne 8 December 2011. 
  43. ^ Calculated: m*g*h = 1e-1 kg * 9.8 m/s^2 * 1 m = 1 J
  44. ^ "Specific Heat of Dry Air". Engineering Toolbox. Pridobljeno dne 2 November 2011. 
  45. ^ "Footnotes". NIST Guide to the SI. NIST. Pridobljeno dne 4 November 2011. 
  46. ^ "Physical Motivations". ULTRA Home Page (EUSO project). Dipartimento di Fisica di Torino. Pridobljeno dne 12 November 2011. 
  47. ^ Calculated: 5e19 eV * 1.6e-19 J/ev = 8 J
  48. ^ "The Fly's Eye (1981–1993)". HiRes. Pridobljeno dne 14 November 2011. 
  49. ^ "Notes on the Troubleshooting and Repair of Electronic Flash Units and Strobe Lights and Design Guidelines, Useful Circuits, and Schematics". Pridobljeno dne 8 December 2011. The energy storage capacitor for pocket cameras is typically 100 to 400 uF at 330 V (charged to 300 V) with a typical flash energy of 10 W-s. 
  50. ^ "Teardown: Digital Camera Canon PowerShot |". electroelvis.com. 2012-09-02. Pridobljeno dne 6 June 2013. 
  51. ^ "Ionizing Radiation". General Chemistry Topic Review: Nuclear Chemistry. Bodner Research Web. Pridobljeno dne 5 November 2011. 
  52. ^ "Vertical Jump Test". Topend Sports. Pridobljeno dne 12 December 2011. 41–50 cm (males) 31–40 cm (females) 
  53. ^ "Mass of an Adult". The Physics Factbook. Pridobljeno dne 13 December 2011. 70 kg 
  54. ^ Kinetic energy at start of jump = potential energy at high point of jump. Using a mass of 70 kg and a high point of 40 cm => energy = m*g*h = 70 kg * 9.8 m/s^2 * 40e-2 m = 274 J
  55. ^ "Latent Heat of Melting of some common Materials". Engineering Toolbox. Pridobljeno dne 10 June 2013. 334 kJ/kg 
  56. ^ Young, Michael. "Developing Event Specific Strength for the Javelin Throw" (PDF). Arhivirano iz prvotnega spletišča (PDF) dne 13 August 2011. Pridobljeno dne 13 December 2011. For elite athletes, the velocity of a javelin release has been measured in excess of 30m/s 
  57. ^ Calculated: 1/2 * 0.8 kg * (30 m/s)^2 = 360 J
  58. ^ Greenspun, Philip. "Studio Photography". Pridobljeno dne 13 December 2011. Most serious studio photographers start with about 2000 watts-seconds 
  59. ^ "Discus Throw – Introduction". IAAF. Pridobljeno dne 12 December 2011. 
  60. ^ "Energy Density of Carbohydrates". The Physics Factbook. Pridobljeno dne 5 November 2011. 
  61. ^ "Energy Density of Protein". The Physics Factbook. Pridobljeno dne 5 November 2011. 
  62. ^ "Energy Density of Fats". The Physics Factbook. Pridobljeno dne 5 November 2011. 
  63. ^ "Energy Density of Gasoline". The Physics Factbook. Pridobljeno dne 5 November 2011. 
  64. ^ Calculated: E = 1/2 m*v^2 = 1/2 * (1e-3 kg) * (1e4 m/s)^2 = 5e4 J.
  65. ^ "Candies, MARS SNACKFOOD US, SNICKERS Bar (NDB No. 19155)". USDA Nutrient Database. USDA. Pridobljeno dne 14 November 2011. 
  66. ^ 66,0 66,1 "How to Balance the Food You Eat and Your Physical Activity and Prevent Obesity". Healthy Weight Basics. National Heart Lung and Blood Institutde. Pridobljeno dne 14 November 2011. 
  67. ^ Calculated: 2000 food calories = 2.0e6 cal * 4.184 J/cal = 8.4e6 J
  68. ^ Calculated: 1/2 * m * v^2 = 1/2 * 48.78 kg * (655 m/s)^2 = 1.0e7 J.
  69. ^ Calculated: 2600 food calories = 2.6e6 cal * 4.184 J/cal = 1.1e7 J
  70. ^ "Table 3.3 Consumer Price Estimates for Energy by Source, 1970–2009". Annual Energy Review. US Energy Information Administration. 19 October 2011. Pridobljeno dne 17 December 2011. $28.90 per million BTU 
  71. ^ Calculated J per dollar: 1 million BTU/$28.90 = 1e6 BTU / 28.90 dollars * 1.055e3 J/BTU = 3.65e7 J/dollar
  72. ^ Calculated cost per kWh: 1 kWh * 3.60e6 J/kWh / 3.65e7 J/dollar = 0.0986 dollar/kWh
  73. ^ "Energy in a Cubic Meter of Natural Gas". The Physics Factbook. Pridobljeno dne 15 December 2011. 
  74. ^ "The Olympic Diet of Michael Phelps". WebMD. Pridobljeno dne 28 December 2011. 
  75. ^ Cline, James E. D. "Energy to Space". Pridobljeno dne 13 November 2011. 6.27E7 Joules / Kg 
  76. ^ "ITP Metal Casting: Melting Efficiency Improvement" (PDF). ITP Metal Casting. U.S. Department of Energy. Pridobljeno dne 14 November 2011. 377 kWh/mt 
  77. ^ Calculated: 380 kW-h * 3.6e6 J/kW-h = 1.37e9 J
  78. ^ "U.S. Household Electricity Uses: A/C, Heating, Appliances". U.S. HOUSEHOLD ELECTRICITY REPORT. EIA. Pridobljeno dne 13 December 2011. For refrigerators in 2001, the average UEC was 1,239 kWh 
  79. ^ Calculated: 1239 kWh * 3.6e6 J/kWh = 4.5e9 J
  80. ^ "Top 10 Biggest Explosions". Listverse. Pridobljeno dne 10 December 2011. a yield of 11 tons of TNT 
  81. ^ Calculated: 11 tons of TNT-equivalent * 4.184e9 J/ton of TNT-equivalent = 4.6e10 J
  82. ^ "Emission Facts: Average Annual Emissions and Fuel Consumption for Passenger Cars and Light Trucks". EPA. Pridobljeno dne 12 December 2011. 581 gallons of gasoline 
  83. ^ "200 Mile-Per-Gallon Cars?". Pridobljeno dne 12 December 2011. a gallon of gas ... 125 million joules of energy 
  84. ^ Calculated: 581 gallons * 125e6 J/gal = 7.26e10 J
  85. ^ Calculated: 1e6 Watts * 86400 seconds/day = 8.6e10 J
  86. ^ Calculated: 3.44e-10 J/U-235-fission * 1e-3 kg / (235 amu per U-235-fission * 1.66e-27 amu/kg) = 8.82e-10 J
  87. ^ "A330-300 Dimensions & key data". Airbus. Pridobljeno dne 12 December 2011. 97530 litres 
  88. ^ 88,0 88,1 88,2 http://web.archive.org/web/20061023142508/http://www.bp.com/liveassets/bp_internet/aviation/air_bp/STAGING/local_assets/downloads_pdfs/a/air_bp_products_handbook_04004_1.pdf
  89. ^ Calculated: 97530 liters * 0.804 kg/L * 43.15 MJ/kg = 3.38e12 J
  90. ^ Calculated: 1e9 Watts * 3600 seconds/hour
  91. ^ "747 Classics Technical Specs". Boeing. Pridobljeno dne 12 December 2011. 183,380 L 
  92. ^ Calculated: 183380 liters * 0.804 kg/L * 43.15 MJ/kg = 6.36e12 J
  93. ^ "A380-800 Dimensions & key data". Airbus. Pridobljeno dne 12 December 2011. 320,000 L 
  94. ^ Calculated: 320,000 l * 0.804 kg/L * 43.15  MJ/kg = 11.1e12 J
  95. ^ "International Space Station: The ISS to Date". NASA. Pridobljeno dne 23 August 2011. 
  96. ^ "The wizards of orbits". European Space Agency. Pridobljeno dne 10 December 2011. The International Space Station, for example, flies at 7.7 km/s in one of the lowest practicable orbits 
  97. ^ Calculated: E = 1/2 m.v² = 1/2 * 417000 kg * (7700m/s)² = 1.2e13 J
  98. ^ "What was the yield of the Hiroshima bomb?". Warbird's Forum. Pridobljeno dne 4 November 2011. 21 kt 
  99. ^ Calculated: 21 kt = 21e9 grams of TNT-equivalent * 4.2e3 J/gram TNT-equivalent = 8.8e13 J
  100. ^ "Conversion from kg to J". NIST. Pridobljeno dne 4 November 2011. 
  101. ^ "How much energy does a hurricane release?". FAQ : HURRICANES, TYPHOONS, AND TROPICAL CYCLONES. NOAA. Pridobljeno dne 12 November 2011. 
  102. ^ "The Gathering Storms". COSMOS. Pridobljeno dne 10 December 2011. 
  103. ^ Calculated: 4.2e9 J/ton of TNT-equivalent * 1e6 tons/megaton = 4.2e15 J/megaton of TNT-equivalent
  104. ^ Calculated: E = mc^2 = 1 kg * (2.998e8 m/s)^2 = 8.99e16 J
  105. ^ "The Soviet Weapons Program – The Tsar Bomba". The Nuclear Weapon Archive. Pridobljeno dne 4 November 2011. 
  106. ^ Calculated: 50e6 tons TNT-equivalent * 4.2e9 J/ton TNT-equivalent = 2.1e17 J
  107. ^ "Country Comparison :: Electricity – consumption". The World Factbook. CIA. Pridobljeno dne 11 December 2011. 
  108. ^ Izračunano: 115.6e9 kWh * 3,60e6 J/kWh = 4,16e17 J
  109. ^ 109,0 109,1 109,2 109,3 109,4 "Statistical Review of World Energy 2011" (PDF). BP. Arhivirano iz prvotnega spletišča (PDF) dne 23 June 2011. Pridobljeno dne 9 December 2011. 
  110. ^ Calculated: 12002.4e6 tonnes of oil equivalent * 42e9 J/tonne of oil equivalent = 5.0e20 J
  111. ^ Global Uranium Resource
  112. ^ U.S. Energy Information Administration, International Energy Generation
  113. ^ U.S. EIA International Energy Outlook 2007.
  114. ^ Final number is computed. Energy Outlook 2007 shows 15.9% of world energy is nuclear. IAEA estimates conventional uranium stock, at today's prices is sufficient for 85 years. Convert billion kilowatt-hours to joules then: 6.25×1019×0.159×85 = 8.01×1020.
  115. ^ Calculated: "6608.9 trillion cubic feet" => 6608.9e3 billion cubic feet * 0.025 million tonnes of oil equivalent/billion cubic feet * 1e6 tonnes of oil equivalent/million tonnes of oil equivalent * 42e9 J/tonne of oil equivalent = 6.9e21 J
  116. ^ Calculated: "188.8 thousand million tonnes" => 188.8e9 tonnes of oil * 42e9 J/tonne of oil = 7.9e21 J
  117. ^ Calculated: 1.27e14 m^2 * 1370 W/m^2 * 86400 s/day = 1.5e22 J
  118. ^ Calculated: 860938 million tonnes of coal => 860938e6 tonnes of coal * (1/1.5 tonne of oil equivalent / tonne of coal) * 42e9 J/tonne of oil equivalent = 2.4e22 J
  119. ^ Calculated: natural gas + petroleum + coal = 6.9e21 J + 7.9e21 J + 2.4e22 J = 3.9e22 J
  120. ^ "USGS, Harvard Moment Tensor Solution". National Earthquake Information Center, US Geological Survey. 26 December 2004. Pridobljeno dne 9 December 2011. 
  121. ^ Zemlja ima presek 1,274×1014 kvadratnih metrov in Sončna konstanta je 1361 vatov na kvadratni meter.
  122. ^ Calculated: 1.27e14 m^2 * 1370 W/m^2 * 86400 s/day = 5.5e24 J
  123. ^ 123,0 123,1 123,2 "Ask Us: Sun: Amount of Energy the Earth Gets from the Sun". Cosmicopia. NASA. Pridobljeno dne 4 November 2011. 
  124. ^ "Moon Fact Sheet". NASA. Pridobljeno dne 16 December 2011. 
  125. ^ Calculated: KE = 1/2 * m * v^2. v = 1.023e3 m/s. m = 7.349e22 kg. KE = 1/2 * (7.349e22 kg) * (1.023e3 m/s)^2 = 3.845e28 J.
  126. ^ "Moment of Inertia—Earth". Eric Weisstein's World of Physics. Pridobljeno dne 5 November 2011. 
  127. ^ Allain, Rhett. "Rotational energy of the Earth as an energy source". .dotphysics. Science Blogs. Pridobljeno dne 5 November 2011. the Earth takes 23.9345 hours to rotate 
  128. ^ Calculated: E_rotational = 1/2 * I * w^2 = 1/2 * (8.0e37 kg m^2) * (2*pi/(23.9345 hour period * 3600 seconds/hour))^2 = 2.1e29 J
  129. ^ Calculated: 3.8e26 J/s * 86400 s/day = 3.3e31 J
  130. ^ http://www.uwgb.edu/DutchS/pseudosc/flipaxis.htm
  131. ^ Calculated: 3.8e26 J/s * 86400 s/day * 365.25 days/year = 1.2e34 J
  132. ^ "Earth: Facts & Figures". Solar System Exploration. NASA. Pridobljeno dne 29 September 2011. 
  133. ^ "Conversion from kg to J". NIST. Pridobljeno dne 4 November 2011. 
  134. ^ Khokhlov, A.; Mueller, E.; Hoeflich, P.; Mueller; Hoeflich (1993). "Light curves of Type IA supernova models with different explosion mechanisms". Astronomy and Astrophysics 270 (1–2): 223–248. Bibcode:1993A&A...270..223K. 
  135. ^ "A Hypernova: The Super-charged Supernova and its link to Gamma-Ray Bursts". Imagine the Universe!. NASA. Pridobljeno dne 9 December 2011. With a power about 100 times that of the already astonishingly powerful "typical" supernova 
  136. ^ "Sun Fact Sheet". NASA. Pridobljeno dne 15 October 2011. 
  137. ^ "Conversion from kg to J". NIST. Pridobljeno dne 4 November 2011. 
  138. ^ "Fermi’s record breaking gamma-ray burst". AstronomyNow. 20. februar, 2009.  Preveri vrednosti datuma v: |date= (pomoč)
  139. ^ Jim Brau. "The Milky Way Galaxy". Pridobljeno dne 4 November 2011. 
  140. ^ "Conversion from kg to J". NIST. Pridobljeno dne 4 November 2011. 
  141. ^ Karachentsev, I. D.; Kashibadze, O. G. (2006). "Masses of the local group and of the M81 group estimated from distortions in the local velocity field". Astrophysics 49(1): 3–18. DOI: 10.1007/s10511-006-0002-6.
  142. ^ "Conversion from kg to J". NIST. Pridobljeno dne 4 November 2011. 
  143. ^ Einasto, M.; et al. (December 2007). "The richest superclusters. I. Morphology". Astronomy and Astrophysics 476 (2): 697–711. arXiv:0706.1122. Bibcode:2007A&A...476..697E. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20078037. 
  144. ^ http://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/ask_astro/answers/980211b.html