Avro Vulcan

Iz Wikipedije, proste enciklopedije
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Avro Vulcan
RAF Vulcan B.2
Vloga Strateški bombnik
Izvor združeno Kraljestvo
Proizvajalec/-ci A V Roe & Co (Avro)
Hawker Siddeley Aviation
Oblikovalec Roy Chadwick/Stuart Davies
Krstni polet 30. avgust 1952
Uveden 2. julij 1956
Upokojen Marec 1984
Status Izven uporabe
Glavni uporabnik Royal Air Force
Izdelovan 1956–1965
Število izdelanih 136
Cena enote £ 750 000 (1956)

Avro Vulcan (uradno Hawker Siddeley Vulcan[1][2] je štirimotorni reaktivni strateški bombnik, ki ga je uporablja RAF v letih 1956−1984. Letalo so zasnovali pri podjetju A.V. Roe and Company (Avro), glavna konstruktorja sta bila Roy Chadwick in Stuart Davies. Zgradili so tri V-bombnike: Vickers Valiant, Handley Page Victor in Avro Vulcan. Pri konstruiranju so uporabljali tehnologijo iz Avro 707.

Prva dobava je bila leta 1956, dobave izboljšanih Vulcan B.2 so sledile leta 1960. B.2 je imel močnejše motorje, večje krilo, ECM, izboljšane elektronske sisteme in možnost oborožitve z raketo Blue Steel. Avro Vulcan je bil najpomembnejši britanski jedrski strateški bombnik, je pa nosil tudi konvencionalne bombe, npr. v Vojni na Falklandih.

Vulcan ni imel orožja za samoobrambo, zanašal se je n a visokohitrostne lete na visoki višini. Zgradili so tudi verzijo K.2 leteči tanker, za prečrpavanje goriva v zraku.

Silhueta Avro 698 koncepta in preklicanega Avro 710

Tehnične specifikacije (ulcan B.1)[uredi | uredi kodo]

Avro Vulcan B Mk 2.svg

Podatki iz Polmar,[3] Laming[4]

Splošne karakteristike

  • Posadka: 5 (pilot, kopilot, AEO, dva navigatorja)
  • Dolžina: 97 ft 1 in (29,59 m)
  • Razpon kril: 99 ft 5 in (30,3 m)
  • Višina: 26 ft 6 in (8,0 m)
  • Površina kril: 3 554 ft² (330,2 m²)
  • Teža praznega letala: 83 573 lb (37 144 kg)
  • Maks. vzletna teža: 170 000 lb (77 111 kg)
  • Pogon letala: 4 × Bristol Olympus 101 ali 102 ali 104 turbojet, 11 000 lbf (49 kN) vsak

Zmogljivost

  • Maks. hitrost: Mach 0,96 (645 mph ( 1038,03km/h)) na višini
  • Potovalna hitrost: Mach 0,86 (567 mph (912 km/h)) at 45 000 ft
  • Doseg: 2 607 mi (4 171 km)
  • Višina leta: 55 000 ft (17 000 m)
  • Razmerje potisk/teža: 0,31

Oborožitev

  • 21 × 1 000 funtov (454 kg) prostopadajočih bomb
  • 1 x Blue Danube jedrska prostopadajoča bomba
  • 1 x Violet Club 400 kt jedrska prostopadajoča bomba
  • 1 x U.S. Mark 5 jedrska prostopadajoča bomba
  • 1 x Yellow Sun Mk.1 400 kt jedrska prostopadajoča bomba
  • 1 x Yellow Sun Mk 2 1.1 Mt termojedrska bomba
  • 1 x Red Beard jedrska prostopadajoča bomba
  • Primerjava različic[uredi | uredi kodo]

    Primerjava različnih verzij
    B.1 B.1A B.2 B.2 (MRR) K.2
    Razpon kril 99 ft 5 in (30,30 m) 111 ft 0 in (33,83 m)
    Dolžina 97 ft 1 in (29,59 m) 105 ft 6 in (32,16 m) [99 ft 11 in (30,45 m) without probe]
    Višina 26 ft 6 in (8,08 m) 27 ft 1 in (8,26 m)
    Površina kril 3.554 sq ft (330,2 m2)[5] 3.964 sq ft (368,3 m2)[5]
    Maks. vzletna teža 167.000 lb (76.000 kg)
    185.000 lb (84.000 kg)
    204.000 lb (93.000 kg)
    Potovalna hitrost Mach .86 indicated
    Maks. hitrost Mach ,95 Mach .93
    (Mach ,92)
    Mach .93
    ?
    Višina leta (servisna= 55.000 ft (17.000 m)[5] 45.000 ft (14.000 m) to 56.000 ft (17.000 m)
    Električni sistemi 112V enosmerni tok 200V izmenični tok, trifazni 400 HZ
    Motorji 4 × Bristol
    Olympus 101, 102 or 104
    4 × Bristol
    Olympus 104
    4 × Bristol Siddeley
    Olympus 200-serije, 301
    4 × Bristol Siddeley
    Olympus 200-serije
    Kapaciteta goriva 9 280 gal (74 240 lb kerozin) 9 260 gal (74,080 lb kerozin)
    None
    Note

    Glej tudi[uredi | uredi kodo]

    Sklici in reference[uredi | uredi kodo]

    1. "Hawker Siddeley Vulcan B2". National Cold War Exibition. Trustees of the Royal Air Force Museum. Pridobljeno dne 24 July 2013. 
    2. "Hawker Siddeley Aviation Ltd." Flight, 29 August 1963, p. 342.
    3. Polmar and Bell 2004, p. 264.
    4. Laming 2002, pp. 155, 182.
    5. 5,0 5,1 5,2 Blackman 2007, p. 213.

    Bibliografija[uredi | uredi kodo]

    • Austin, Steve. "Workhorse (V-Bombers: Test-bed Vulcan)." FlyPast, No. 335, June 2009, pp. 108–113.
    • Baxter, Alan. Olympus: The First Forty Years. Derby, UK: Rolls-Royce Heritage Trust, 1990. ISBN 978-0-9511710-9-7.
    • Blackman, Tony. Vulcan Test Pilot: My Experiences in the Cockpit of a Cold War Icon. London: Grub Street, 2007. ISBN 978-1-904943-88-4.
    • Braybrook, Roy. Battle for the Falklands: Air Forces. Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing, 1982. ISBN 0-85045-493-X.
    • Brookes, Andrew and Chris Davey. Vulcan Units of The Cold War (Osprey Combat Aircraft: 72). Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing, 2009. ISBN 978-1-84603-297-4.
    • Bull, Stephen. Encyclopedia of Military Technology And Innovation. Santa Barbara, California: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2004. ISBN 978-1-57356-557-8.
    • Buttler, Tony. "Avro Type 698 Vulcan (Database)." Aeroplane, Vol. 35, No. 4, Issue No. 408, April 2007.
    • Buttler, Tony. British Secret Projects: Jet Bombers Since 1949. Hinckley, Leicestershire, UK: Midland, 2003. ISBN 1-85780-130-X.
    • Buttler, Tony. "Vital Bombers: Origins of the RAF's 'V-Bomber' Force". Air Enthusiast, No. 79, January/February 1999, pp. 28–41. ISSN 0143-5450.
    • Darling Kev. Avro Vulcan. North Branch, USA: Speciality Press, 1999. ISBN 1-58007-023-X.
    • Darling, Kev. Avro Vulcan, Part One (RAF Illustrated). Vale of Glamorgan Wales, UK: Big Bird Aviation Publication, 2007. ISBN 978-1-84799-237-6.
    • Dawson, T.W.G., G.F. Kitchen and G.B. Glider. Measurements of the Radar Echoing Area of the Vulcan by the Optical Simulation Method. Farnborough, Hants, UK: Royal Aircraft Establishment, September 1957 National Archive Catologue file, AVIA 6/20895
    • Fildes, David. "Buck Rogers in the 20th Century: The Origins of the Vulcan." Aeroplane, Vol. 36, No. 3, Issue No. 419, March 2008.
    • Frawley, Gerard (2002). The International Directory of Military Aircraft. Aerospace Publications Pty Ltd. ISBN 1-875671-55-2. 
    • Gallop, Alan. Time Flies: Heathrow At 60. Stroud, UK: Sutton Publishing, 2005. ISBN 0-7509-3840-4.
    • Gunston, Bill. "The V-bombers: Avro Vulcan - Part 3". Aeroplane Monthly, Vol. 8, No. 12, December 1980, pp. 620–626. ISSN 0143-7240.
    • Halpenny, Bruce Barrymore. Avro Vulcan: The History and Development of a Classic Jet. Barnsley, South Yorkshire, UK: Pen & Sword Aviation, 2006. ISBN 1-84415-426-2.
    • Hamilton-Paterson, James. Empire of the Clouds: When Britain's Aircraft Ruled the World. London: Faber & Faber, 2010. ISBN 978-0-571-24794-3.
    • Hearn, Chester G. Carriers in Combat: The Air War at Sea. London: Stackpole Books, 2007. ISBN 0-8117-3398-X.
    • Jackson, A.J. (1990). Avro Aircraft since 1908 (2 izd.). London: Putnam Aeronautical Books. ISBN 9780851778341. 
    • Jackson, Paul. "Vulcan: Delta Force". Wings of Fame, Volume 3. London: Aerospace Publishing, 1996. pp. 34–95. ISBN 1-874023-70-0. ISSN 1361-2034.
    • Jackson, Robert. Combat Aircraft Prototypes since 1945. New York: Arco/Prentice Hall Press, 1986. ISBN 0-671-61953-5.
    • Jefford, C.G. (2001). RAF Squadrons, a Comprehensive Record of the Movement and Equipment of all RAF Squadrons and their Antecedents since 1912. (2 izd.). Shrewsbury, Shropshire, UK: Airlife Publishing. ISBN 1-84037-141-2. 
    • Jenkins, Dennis R. B-1 Lancer: The Most Complicated Warplane Ever Developed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1999. ISBN 0-07-134694-5.
    • Jones, Barry. V-Bombers: Valiant, Victor and Vulcan. Ramsbury, UK: The Crowood Press, Paperback edition, 2007. ISBN 978-1-86126-945-4.
    • Jones, Barry. "Black Buck - The Swansong." Aeroplane, Vol. 35, No. 4, Issue No. 408, April 2007.
    • Kingsley, Simon and Shaun Quegan. Understanding Radar Systems. Raleigh, North Carolina: SciTech Publishing, 1999. ISBN 1-891121-05-7.
    • Lake, Alan (1999). Flying Units Of The RAF. London: Airlife Publishing Ltd. ISBN 9781840370867. 
    • Laming, Tim. The Vulcan Story: 1952-2002, Second Edition. Enderby, Leicester, UK: Silverdale Books, 2002. ISBN 1-85605-701-1.
    • Leitch, Andy. "V Force Arsenal: Weapons for the Valiant, Victor and Vulcan". Air Enthusiast, No. 107, September/October 2003, pp. 52–59. ISSN 0143-5450.
    • Polmar, Norman and Dana Bell. One Hundred Years of World Military Aircraft. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 2004. ISBN 1-59114-686-0.
    • Price, Alfred, Tony Blackman and Andrew Edmondson. Avro Vulcan Manual: An Insight into Owning, Restoring, Servicing and Flying Britain's Legendary Cold War Bomber (Owner's Workshop Manual). Sparkford, Somerset, UK: Haynes, 2010. ISBN 1-84425-831-9.
    • Richardson, Doug. Stealth Warplanes. North Branch, Minnesota: Zenith Imprint, 2001. ISBN 0-7603-1051-3.
    • Seddon, J. and E. L. Goldsmith. Intake Aerodynamics (Aiaa Education Series). Reston, Virginia: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1999. ISBN 1-56347-361-5.
    • Segell, Glen. Wither or dither: British Aerospace Collaborative Procurement with Europe. London: Glen Segell Publishers, 1997. ISBN 1-901414-03-5.
    • Stephens, Alan. Power Plus Attitude: Ideas, Strategy and Doctrine in the Royal Australian Air Force, 1921-1991. Canberra, Australia: AGPS Press, 1992. ISBN 0-644-24388-0.
    • Vulcan B.Mk.1A Pilot's Notes (AP 4505C–PN). London: Air Ministry, 1961.
    • Vulcan B.Mk.2 Aircrew Manual (AP101B-1902-15). London: Air Ministry, 1984.
    • Wansbrough-White, Gordon. Names With Wings: The Names & Naming Systems of Aircraft & Engines Flown by the British Armed Forces 1878-1984. Shrewsbury, UK: Airlife Publishing Ltd, 1995. ISBN 1-85310-491-4.
    • White, Rowland. Vulcan 607: The Epic Story of the Most Remarkable British Air Attack since WWII. London: Bantam Press, 2006. ISBN 0-593-05391-5.
    • Willis, David. "Avro Vulcan survivors." Aeroplane, Vol. 35, No. 4, Issue No. 408, April 2007.
    • Wilson, Stewart (1989). Lincoln, Canberra and F-111 in Australian Service. Weston Creek, ACT, Australia: Aerospace Publications. ISBN 9780958797832. 
    • Wynn, Humphrey. RAF Strategic Nuclear Deterrent Forces: Origins, Roles and Deployment 1946-1969. London: The Stationery Office, 1997. ISBN 0-11-772833-0.

    Zunanje povezave[uredi | uredi kodo]