Seznam najbližjih zvezd

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Umetniška upodobitev rdeče pritlikavke, najbolj razširjene vrste zvezd v zvezdnem sosedstvu Sonca

Seznam najbližjih zvezd glede na Sonce, oziroma Zemljo. Seznam je urejen po naraščajoči oddaljenosti do največ 5 parsekov (16,308 svetlobnih let). Vključno z Osončjem je trenutno znanih 50 zvezdnih sistemov, ki ležijo v tem krogelnem območju. V teh sistemih je skupaj 65 znanih zvezd in 4 znane rjave pritlikavke. Od tega je ena zvezda Sončev dvojček, ena Sončev analogon, štiri bele in 50 rdečih pritlikavk.

Zvezde in rjave pritlikavke z navideznim sijem večjim od 6,5m in, ki jih zaradi tega ne moremo opazovati s prostim očesom,[1] so prikazane v praškasto modri. Spektralni razredi zvezd in rjavih pritlikavk so prikazani v barvi njihovega spektralnega razreda. Te barve so izvedene iz dogovorjenih imen za spektralne razrede in ne nakazujejo opazovanih barv zvezd. Nekatere paralakse in razdalje je meril Raziskovalni konzorcij o bližnjih zvezdah (RECONS) in predstavljajo le trenutne vrednosti.[2]

Seznam[uredi | uredi kodo]

# oznaka spektralni razred mV MV Teff
[Kur)
epoha J2000,0 paralaksa[2][3]
["ur)]
oddaljenost[4]
[sv. l.ur)]
dodatne
reference
sistem zvezda rektascenzija[2] deklinacija[2]
Sončev Sonce G2V[2] −26,72[2] 4,85[2]  5778[5] 180° 0,0000158(3)
ali približno
8 svetl. minut
1 Alfa Kentavra
(Rigil Kentaurus; Toliman)
Proksima Kentavra (V645 Kentavra) M5.5Ve 11,09 15,53  3040[6] 14h 29m 43,0s −62° 40′ 46″ 0,768 87(0 29)[7][8] 4,2421(16) [9]
α Kentavra A (HD 128620) G2V 0,01 4,38  5790[6] 14h 39m 36,5s −60° 50′ 02″ 0.747 23(1 17)[7][10] 4,3650(68)
α Kentavra B (HD 128621) K0V 1,34 5,71  5260[6] 14h 39m 35,1s −60° 50′ 14″
2 Barnardova zvezda (BD+04°3561a) M4.0Ve 9,53 13,22  3134(102)[11] 17h 57m 48,5s +04° 41′ 36″ 0,546 98(1 00)[7][8] 5,9630(109)
3 Wolf 359 (CN Leva) M6.0V 13,44 16,55  2800(100)[12] 10h 56m 29,2s +07° 00′ 53″ 0,419 10(2 10)[7] 7,7825(390)
4 Lalande 21185 (BD+36°2147) M2.0V 7,47 10,44  3400[13] 11h 03m 20,2s +35° 58′ 12″ 0,393 42(0 70)[7][8] 8,2905(148)
5 Sirij
(α Velikega psa)
Sirij A A1V −1,43 1,47  9940(210)[14] 06h 45m 08,9s −16° 42′ 58″ 0,380 02(1 28)[7][8] 8,5828(289)
Sirij B DA2 8,44 11,34 25.000(200)[15]
6 Luyten 726-8 Luyten 726-8 A (BL Kita) M5.5Ve 12,54 15,40  2670 01h 39m 01,3s −17° 57′ 01″ 0,373 70(2 70)[7] 8,7280(631)
Luyten 726-8 B (UV Kita) M6.0Ve 12,99 15,85 ~2600
7 Ross 154 (V1216 Vodnarja) M3.5Ve 10,43 13,07  2700 18h 49m 49,4s −23° 50′ 10″ 0,336 90(1 78)[7][8] 9,6813(512)
8 Ross 248 (HH Andromede) M5.5Ve 12,29 14,79 ? 23h 41m 54,7s +44° 10′ 30″ 0,316 00(1 10)[7] 10,322(36)
9 Epsilon Eridana (BD−09°697) K2V 3,73 6,19  5100 03h 32m 55,8s −09° 27′ 30″ 0,309 99(0 79)[7][8] 10,522(27)
10 Lacaille 9352 (CD−36°15693) M1.5Ve 7,34 9,75  3340 23h 05m 52,0s −35° 51′ 11″ 0,303 64(0 87)[7][8] 10,742(31)
11 Ross 128 (FI Device) M4.0Vn 11,13 13,51  2800 11h 47m 44,4s +00° 48′ 16″ 0,298 72(1 35)[7][8] 10,919(49)
12 EZ Vodnarja
(GJ 866, Luyten 789-6)
EZ Vodnarja A M5.0Ve 13,33 15,64 ? 22h 38m 33,4s −15° 18′ 07″ 0,289 50(4 40)[7] 11,266(171)
EZ Vodnarja B M5.5V 13,27 15,58 ?
EZ Vodnarja C M6.5V 14,03 16,34 ?
13 Prokijon
(α Malega psa)
Prokijon A F5V-IV 0,38 2,66  6650 07h 39m 18,1s +05° 13′ 30″ 0,286 05(0 81)[7][8] 11,402(32)
Prokijon B DA 10,70 12,98  9700
14 61 Laboda 61 Laboda A (BD+38°4343) K5.0V 5,21 7,49  4640 21h 06m 53,9s +38° 44′ 58″ 0,286 04(0 56)[7][8] 11,403(22)
61 Laboda B (BD+38°4344) K7.0V 6,03 8,31  4440 21h 06m 55,3s +38° 44′ 31″
15 Struve 2398
(GJ 725, BD+59°1915)
Struve 2398 A (HD 173739) M3.0V 8,90 11,16 ? 18h 42m 46,7s +59° 37′ 49″ 0.283 00(1 69)[7][8] 11,525(69)
Struve 2398 B (HD 173740) M3.5V 9,69 11,95 ? 18h 42m 46,9s +59° 37′ 37″
16 Groombridge 34
(GJ 15)
Groombridge 34 A (GX Andromede) M1.5V 8,08 10,32 ? 0h 18m 22,9s +44° 01′ 23″ 0,280 59(0 95)[7][8] 11,624(39)
Groombridge 34 B (GQ Andromede) M3.5V 11,06 13,30 ?
17 Epsilon Indijanca
(CPD−57°10015)
Epsilon Indijanca A K5Ve 4,69 6,89  4280 22h 03m 21,7s −56° 47′ 10″ 0,275 84(0 69)[7][8] 11,824(30)
Epsilon Indijanca Ba T1.0V >23 >25  1280 22h 04m 10,5s −56° 46′ 58″
Epsilon Indijanca Bb T6.0V >23 >25    850
18 DX Raka (G 51-15) M6.5Ve 14,78 16,98 ? 08h 29m 49,5s +26° 46′ 37″ 0,275 80(3 00)[7] 11,826(129)
19 Tau Kita (BD−16°295) G8Vp 3,49 5,68  5344 01h 44m 04,1s −15° 56′ 15″ 0,274 39(0 76)[7][8] 11,887(33)
20 GJ 1061 (LHS 1565) M5.5V 13,09 15,26 ? 03h 35m 59,7s −44° 30′ 45″ 0,272 01(1 30)[16] 11,991(57) [17][18]
21 YZ Kita (LHS 138) M4.5V 12,02 14,17 ? 01h 12m 30,6s −16° 59′ 56″ 0,268 84(2 95)[7][8] 12,132(133)
22 Luytenova zvezda (BD+05°1668) M3.5Vn 9,86 11,97 ? 07h 27m 24,5s +05° 13′ 33″ 0,263 76(1 25)[7][8] 12,366(59)
23 Teegardnova zvezda (SO025300.5+165258) M6.5V 15,14 17,22 ? 02h 53m 00,9s +16° 52′ 53″ 0,260 63(2 69)[16] 12,514(129) [18]
24 SCR 1845-6357 SCR 1845-6357 A M8.5V 17,39 19,41 ? 18h 45m 05,3s −63° 57′ 48″ 0,259 45(1 11)[16] 12,571(54) [18]
SCR 1845-6357 B T6[19] ? ?    950[19] 18h 45m 02,6s −63° 57′ 52″
25 Kapteynova zvezda (CD−45°1841) M1.5V 8,84 10,87  3800 05h 11m 40,6s −45° 01′ 06″ 0,255 27(0 86)[7][8] 12,777(43)
26 Lacaille 8760 (AX Mikroskopa) M0.0V 6,67 8,69  3340 21h 17m 15,3s −38° 52′ 03″ 0,253 43(1 12)[7][8] 12,870(57)
27 Kruger 60
(BD+56°2783)
Kruger 60 A M3.0V 9,79 11,76  3180 22h 27m 59,5s +57° 41′ 45″ 0,248 06(1 39)[7][10] 13,149(74)
Kruger 60 B (DO Kefeja) M4.0V 11,41 13,38  2890
28 DEN 1048-3956 M8.5V 17,39 19,37 ? 10h 48m 14,7s −39° 56′ 06″ 0,247 71(1 55)[16] 13,167(82) [20][21]
29 Ross 614
(V577 Enoroga, GJ 234)
Ross 614A (LHS 1849) M4.5V 11,15 13,09 ? 06h 29m 23,4s −02° 48′ 50″ 0,244 34(2 01)[7][10] 13,349(110)
Ross 614B (LHS 1850) M5.5V 14,23 16,17 ?
30 Wolf 1061 (Gl 628, BD−12°4523) M3.0V 10,07 11,93 ? 16h 30m 18,1s −12° 39′ 45″ 0,236 01(1 67)[7][8] 13,820(98)
31 Van Maanenenova zvezda (Gl 35, LHS 7) DZ7 12,38 14,21 ? 00h 49m 09,9s +05° 23′ 19″ 0,231 88(1 79)[7][8] 14,066(109)
32 Gl 1 (CD−37°15492) M3.0V 8,55 10,35 ? 00h 05m 24,4s −37° 21′ 27″ 0,229 20(1 07)[7][8] 14,231(66)
33 Wolf 424
(FL Device, LHS 333, GJ 473)
Wolf 424 A M5.5Ve 13,18 14,97 ? 12h 33m 17,2s +09° 01′ 15″ 0.227 90(4 60)[7] 14,312(289)
Wolf 424 B M5.5V 13,17 14,96 ?
34 TZ Ovna (GJ 83.1, Luyten 1159-16) M4.5V 12,27 14,03 ? 02h 00m 13,2s +13° 03′ 08″ 0,224 80(2 90)[7] 14,509(187)
35 Gl 687 (LHS 450, BD+68°946) M3.0V 9,17 10,89 ? 17h 36m 25,9s +68° 20′ 21″ 0,220 49(0 82)[7][8] 14,793(55)
36 LHS 292 (LP 731-58) M6.5V 15,60 17,32 ? 10h 48m 12,6s −11° 20′ 14″ 0,220 30(3 60)[7] 14,805(242)
37 Gl 674 (LHS 449) M3.0V 9,38 11,09 ? 17h 28m 39,9s −46° 53′ 43″ 0,220 25(1 59)[7][8] 14,809(107)
38 GJ 1245 GJ 1245 A M5.5V 13,46 15,17 ? 19h 53m 54,2s +44° 24′ 55″ 0.220 20(1 00)[7] 14,812(67)
GJ 1245 B M6.0V 14,01 15,72 ? 19h 53m 55,2s +44° 24′ 56″
GJ 1245 C M? 16,75 18,46 ? 19h 53m 54,2s +44° 24′ 55″
39 GJ 440 (WD 1142-645) DQ6 11,50 13,18  7500 11h 45m 42,9s −64° 50′ 29″ 0,216 57(2 01)[7][8] 15,060(140)
40 GJ 1002 M5.5V 13,76 15,40 ? 00h 06m 43,8s −07° 32′ 22″ 0,213 00(3 60)[7] 15,313(259)
41 Ross 780 (GJ 876) M3.5V 10,17 11,81  3480 22h 53m 16,7s −14° 15′ 49″ 0,212 59(1 96)[7][8] 15,342(141)
42 LHS 288 (Luyten 143-23) M5.5V 13,90 15,51 ? 10h 44m 21,2s −61° 12′ 36″ 0,208 95(2 73)[16] 15,610(204) [18]
43 GJ 412 GJ 412 A M1.0V 8,77 10,34 ? 11h 05m 28,6s +43° 31′ 36″ 0,206 02(1 08)[7][8] 15,832(83)
GJ 412 B (WX Velikega medveda) M5.5V 14,48 16,05 ? 11h 05m 30,4s +43° 31′ 18″
44 Groombridge 1618 (GJ 380) K7.0V 6,59 8,16  4000 10h 11m 22,1s +49° 27′ 15″ 0,205 81(0 67)[7][8] 15,848(52)
45 GJ 388 M3.0V 9,32 10,87 ? 10h 19m 36,4s +19° 52′ 10″ 0,204 60(2 80)[7] 15,942(218)
46 GJ 832 M3.0V 8,66 10,20 ? 21h 33m 34,0s −49° 00′ 32″ 0,202 78(1 32)[7][8] 16,085(105)
47 LP 944-020 M9.0V 18,50 20,02 ? 03h 39m 35,2s −35° 25′ 41″ 0,201 40(4 20)[22] 16,195(338)
48 DEN 0255-4700 L7.5V 22,92 24,44 ? 02h 55m 03,7s −47° 00′ 52″ 0,201 37(3 89)[16] 16,197(313) [21]
Merilna negotovost paralakse presega 0,200"
49 GJ 682 M4.5V 10,95 12,45 ? 17h 37m 03,7s −44° 19′ 09″ 0,199 65(2 30)[7][8] 16,337(188)
# sistem zvezda spektralni razred mV MV Teff
[Kur)]
rektascenzija[2] deklinacija[2] paralaksa[2][3]
["ur)]
oddaljenost[4]
[sv. l.ur)]
dodatne
reference
oznaka epoha J2000,0

Prikaz najbližjih zvezd[uredi | uredi kodo]

Slika prikazuje vseh 32 zvezdnih sistemov v krogelnem območju znotraj 14 svetlobnih let od Sonca.

Soncu najbližje zvezde

Glej tudi[uredi | uredi kodo]

Opombe in sklici[uredi | uredi kodo]

  1. Weaver, Harold F. (1947). "The Visibility of Stars Without Optical Aid". Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 59 (350): 232–243. Pridobljeno dne 2007-02-04. 
  2. 2,0 2,1 2,2 2,3 2,4 2,5 2,6 2,7 2,8 2,9 Raziskovalni konzorcij o bližnjih zvezdah, GSU (2007-09-17). "The One Hundred Nearest Star Systems". RECONS. Pridobljeno dne 2007-11-06. 
  3. 3,0 3,1 Parallaxes given by RECONS are a weighted mean of values in the sources given, as well as measurements by the RECONS program.
  4. 4,0 4,1 From parallax.
  5. Sun Fact Sheet, NASA. Accessed on line November 8, 2007.
  6. 6,0 6,1 6,2 Kervella, Pierre; Thevenin, Frederic (15. marec 2003). "A Family Portrait of the Alpha Centauri System: VLT Interferometer Studies the Nearest Stars". ESO Press Release 05/03 (ESO). Pridobljeno dne 2007-11-08. 
  7. 7,00 7,01 7,02 7,03 7,04 7,05 7,06 7,07 7,08 7,09 7,10 7,11 7,12 7,13 7,14 7,15 7,16 7,17 7,18 7,19 7,20 7,21 7,22 7,23 7,24 7,25 7,26 7,27 7,28 7,29 7,30 7,31 7,32 7,33 7,34 7,35 7,36 7,37 7,38 7,39 7,40 7,41 7,42 Splošni katalog trihonometričnih paralaks (GCTP).
  8. 8,00 8,01 8,02 8,03 8,04 8,05 8,06 8,07 8,08 8,09 8,10 8,11 8,12 8,13 8,14 8,15 8,16 8,17 8,18 8,19 8,20 8,21 8,22 8,23 8,24 8,25 8,26 8,27 8,28 Katalog Hipparcosa.
  9. Burgasser idr (2000).
  10. 10,0 10,1 10,2 Visual binary orbits and masses post Hipparcos, Staffan Söderhjelm, Astronomy and Astrophysics 341 (januar 1999), pp. 121–140.
  11. Barnard's Star and the M Dwarf Temperature Scale, P. C. Dawson and M. M. de Robertis, The Astronomical Journal 127, #5 (May 2004), pp. 2909–2914. DOI: 10.1086/383289
  12. Ya. V. Pavlenko; H. R. A. Jones; Yu. Lyubchik; J. Tennyson; D. J. Pinfield (februar 2006). "Spectral energy distribution for GJ406". Astronomy and Astrophysics 447 (2): 709–717. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20052979. 
  13. Carbon monoxide bands in M dwarfs, Y. V. Pavlenko and H. R. A. Jones, Astronomy and Astrophysics 396 (December 2002), pp. 967–975. DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20021454
  14. Table 2, The physical properties of normal A stars, Saul J. Adelman, pp. 1–11, The A-Star Puzzle, Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union, edited by J. Zverko, J. Ziznovsky, S. J. Adelman, and W. W. Weiss, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2004. DOI: 10.1017/S1743921304004314
  15. Privzeta vrednost, The Age and Progenitor Mass of Sirius B, James Liebert, Patrick A. Young, David Arnett, J.B. Holberg, and Kurtis A. Williams, The Astrophysical Journal 630, #1 (September 2005), pp. L69–L72.
  16. 16,0 16,1 16,2 16,3 16,4 16,5 Systems with their first accurate trigonometric parallaxes measured by RECONS
  17. The solar neighborhood IV: discovery of the twentieth nearest star, Todd J. Henry, Philip A. Ianna, J. Davy Kirkpatrick, Hartmut Jahreiss, The Astronomical Journal 114, #1 (July 1997), pp. 388–395. DOI: 10.1086/118482
  18. 18,0 18,1 18,2 18,3 The Solar Neighborhood. XVII. Parallax Results from the CTIOPI 0.9 m Program: 20 New Members of the RECONS 10 Parsec Sample, Todd J. Henry, Wei-Chun Jao, John P. Subasavage, Thomas D. Beaulieu, Philip A. Ianna, Edgardo Costa, René A. Méndez, The Astronomical Journal 132, #6 (December 2006), pp. 2360–2371. DOI: 10.1086/508233
  19. 19,0 19,1 The very nearby M/T dwarf binary SCR 1845-6357, Markus Kasper, Beth A. Biller, Adam Burrows, Wolfgang Brandner, Jano Budaj, and Laird M. Close, Astronomy and Astrophysics 471, #2 (August 2007), pp. 655–659. DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20077881
  20. The Solar Neighborhood. XIII. Parallax Results from the CTIOPI 0.9 Meter Program: Stars with μ >= 1.0" yr-1 (Motion sample), Wei-Chun Jao, Todd J. Henry, John P. Subasavage, Misty A. Brown, Philip A. Ianna, Jennifer L. Bartlett, Edgardo Costa, René A. Méndez, The Astronomical Journal 129, #4 (April 2005), pp. 1954–1967. DOI: 10.1086/428489
  21. 21,0 21,1 The Solar Neighborhood. XIV. Parallaxes from the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory Parallax Investigation—First Results from the 1.5 m Telescope Program, Edgardo Costa, René A. Méndez, W.-C. Jao, Todd J. Henry, John P. Subasavage, Misty A. Brown, Philip A. Ianna, and Jennifer Bartlett, The Astronomical Journal 130, #1 (julij 2005), str. 337–349. DOI: 10.1086/430473
  22. CCD astrometry of southern very low-mass stars, C. G. Tinney, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 281, #2 (July 1996), pp. 644–658.

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