Neraketna izstrelitev v vesolje

Iz Wikipedije, proste enciklopedije
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Neraketna izstrelitev v vesolje (angleško non-rocket space launchNRS) je način izstreljevanja tovora in ljudi v vesoljski prostor brez uporabe konvencionalnih raket ali pa samo z njihovo delno uporabo. Glavni cilj je zmanjšanje stroškov transporta v vesoljski prostor. NRS bi lahko omogočil projekte, kot so kolonizacija vesolja, rudarjenje asteroidov, vesoljske sončne elektrarne in druge projekte, ki s trenutno tehnologijo niso možni.

Obstaja več konceptov npr. vesoljsko dvigalo, vesoljska fontana, skyhook, orbitalni obroč, vesoljski top in več drugih.

Trenutno so edina možnost rakete s ceno približno 10000 $ do 25000 $ na kilogram tovora. Rakete so zanesljive v približno 97 % primerih. V nekaterih primerih npr. raketoplan Space Shutlle se je dalo nekatere komponentne večkrat uporabiti, vendar je bila cena izstrelitve še vedno visoka.

Primerjava različnih načinov[uredi | uredi kodo]

Primerjava različnih načinov
.
metoda(a) prva objava okvirna cena izgradnje
v milijardah US$(b)
masa tovora
kg
cena v NZO
US$/kg(b)
kapaciteta
ton/leto
stanje tehnologije
konvencionalna raketa[1] 1903[2] 7002700000000000000700 – 7005130000000000000130.000 70034000000000000004.000 – 700420000000000000020.000 7002200000000000000200 70009000000000000009
vesoljsko dvigalo 1895[3] 70002000000000000002
nevrteči Skyhook 1990 < 1 70002000000000000002
hipersonični Skyhook[4] 1993 7000100000000000000< 1(c) 70031500000000000001.500(d) 700130000000000000030(e) 70002000000000000002
rotovator[5] 1977 70002000000000000002
HASTOL[6][7] 2000 700415000000000000015.000(f) 70002000000000000002
orbitalni obroč[8] 1980 700115000000000000015 7000500000000000000< 0.05 70002000000000000002
izstrelitvena zanka[9] (majhna) 1985 700110000000000000010 70035000000000000005.000 7002300000000000000300 700440000000000000040.000 70002000000000000002+
izstrelitvena zanka[9] (velika) 1985 700130000000000000030 70035000000000000005.000 70003000000000000003 70066000000000000006.000.000 70002000000000000002+
KITE Launcher[10] 2005 70002000000000000002
StarTram[11] 2001 700120000000000000020(g) 35000 700143000000000000043 7005150000000000000150.000 70002000000000000002
Ram pospeševalnik[navedi vir] 2004 7002500000000000000< 500 70006000000000000006
vesoljski top[12] 1865(h) 0,5 450 500 70006000000000000006
slingatron[13][14] 7002100000000000000100 70002000000000000002 to 4
laserski pogon[15] 2 100 550 3000 7000400000000000000Up to 4
usmerjeni mikrovalovni pogon[16] 1 < 100 600
orbitalna zračna ladja

Glej tudi[uredi | uredi kodo]

Sklici[uredi | uredi kodo]

  1. "SpaceCast 2020" Report to the Chief of Staff of the Air Force, 22 Jun 94.
  2. Tsiolkovsky, Исследование мировых пространств реактивными приборами - The Exploration of Cosmic Space by Means of Reaction Devices (Russian)
  3. Hirschfeld, Bob (2002-01-31). "Space Elevator Gets Lift". TechTV. G4 Media, Inc. Arhivirano iz prvotnega spletišča dne 2005-06-08. Pridobljeno dne 2007-09-13. The concept was first described in 1895 by Russian author K. E. Tsiolkovsky in his "Speculations about Earth and Sky and on Vesta."  Citation copied from Space elevator article. As of Oct 2012, the archived page was still good, but the original no longer functioned.
  4. "The Hypersonic Skyhook", Analog Science Fiction / Science Fact, vol. 113, no. 11, September 1993, pp. 60-70.
  5. "A Non-Synchronous Orbital Skyhook", Hans P. Moravec, Journal of the Astronautical Sciences, vol. 25, Oct-Dec 1977
  6. Paper, AIAA 00-3615 "Design and Simulation of Tether Facilities for HASTOL Architecture", R. Hoyt, 17-19 Jul 2000.
  7. Paper, NIAC 3rd Ann. Mtg, NIAC subcontract no. 07600-040, “Hypersonic Airplane Space Tether Orbital Launch – HASTOL”, John E. Grant, 6 Jun 2001.
  8. "Orbital Ring Systems and Jacob's Ladders - I-III". Note: in 1980s money.
  9. 9,0 9,1 Launch Loop slides for the ISDC2002 conference
  10. Johansen, US patent #6913224, Method and system for accelerating an object, 5 Jul 2005
  11. "The Startram Project": Maglev Launch: Ultra Low Cost Ultra/High Volume Access to Space for Cargo and Humans by James Powell, George Maise and John Rather. Submitted for Presentation at SPESIF-2010 - Space, Propulsion, and Energy Sciences International Forum. February 23, 26, 2010
  12. "Quicklaunch Inc."  od dne May 2013[slepa povezava]
  13. "Slingatron, A Mechanical Hypervelocity Mass Accelerator"
  14. The Slingatron: Building a Railroad to Space
  15. Jordin Kare (2009). "HX Laser Launch" (PDF). 
  16. "NASA researcher Kevin Parkin discusses microwave space propulsion". nextbigfuture.com. 15 February 2011. 

Zunanje povezave[uredi | uredi kodo]