Lockheed P-38 Lightning

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Lockheed P-38 Lightning
P-38H Lightning
Vloga lovsko letalo, spremljevalno letalo, jurišnik, nočni lovec, izvidniško letalo...
Proizvajalec/-ci Lockheed Corporation
Oblikovalec Clarence "Kelly" Johnson
Krstni polet 27. januar 1939
Predstavljen 1941
Upokojen 1965 Honduraške letalske sile[1]
Glavni uporabnik USAAF
Izdelovan 1941–45
Število izdelanih 10.037
Cena enote 97.147 US$ leta 1944[2]
Izpeljanke Lockheed XP-49
Lockheed XP-58

Lockheed P-38 Lightning (Blisk) je bil ameriški dvomotorni lovec 2. svetovne vojne. Bil je tudi strmoglavec, jurišnik, spremljevalni lovec bombnikov, nočni lovec in izvidniško letalo.[3] Skupaj so zgradili nekaj več kot 10.000 letal. P-38 je bil lahko prepoznaven po dvojnem trupu, Nemci so mu dali vzdevek "Hudič z viličastim repom". S tem tipom letala sta 18. aprila 1943 v skrivni operaciji Vengeance (Maščevanje) pilota Rex T. Barber in Thomas G. Lanphier nad otokom Bougainville v Solomonovem otočju sestrelila osebno letalo, dvomotorni bombnik Mitsubishi G4M1 "Betty", velikega japonskega admirala Isorokuja Jamamota. Ostanki admiralovega letala so še danes vidni v džungli, kamor je strmoglavilo.

Uporabljali so ga na pacifiških in evropskih bojiščih. Do uvedbe P-51D Mustanga je bil glavno spremljevalno letalo ameriških bombnikov. P-38 je bil relativno tih med letom turbopolnilnika sta zelo zmanjšala hrup in močno povečala moč motorjev in zmogljivosti. Vidna sta ob koncu kril na zgornji strani obeh trupov. V tistem času so bili turbopolnilniki še vojaška tajnost.

S P-38 je letelo veliko ameriških asov: Richard I. Bong (40 zmag), Thomas B. McGuire (38 zmag) itn.

Specifikacije (P-38L)[uredi | uredi kodo]

Lockheed P-38 Lightning 3-view.svg

Podatki iz Lockheed P-38 Lightning Pilot's Flight Manual[4]

Splošne karakteristike

  • Posadka: pilot
  • Dolžina: 37 ft 10 in (11,53 m) (11,53 m)
  • Razpon kril: 52 ft 0 in (15,85 m) (15,85 m)
  • Višina: 12 ft 10 in (3,91 m) (3,91 m)
  • Površina kril: 327,5 sq ft (30,43 m²)
  • Aeroprofil: NACA 23016 / NACA 4412
  • Teža praznega letala: 12.800 lb (5.800 kg)
  • Naložena teža: 17.500 lb (7.940 kg)
  • Maks. vzletna teža: 21.600 lb (9.798 kg)
  • Pogon letala: 2 trikraka propelerja (navzven vrteča) × 12 valjni V motor Allison V-1710-111/113 tekočinsko hlajen V-12 motor, 1.600 KM (1.193 kW) [5] vsak
  • * Vitkost: 8,26

Zmogljivost

Oborožitev

  • 1× top Hispano M2(C) 20 mm (.79 in) s 150 naboji
  • 4× strojnica M2 Browning 0.50 in (12,7 mm)
  • 4× M10 tricevni lanserji 4.5 in (112 mm) raket; ali:
    • Podtrupni nosilci:
      • 2× 2.000 lb (907 kg) bomb ali odvrgljivih rezervoarjev; ali
      • 2× 1.000 lb (454 kg) bomb ali odvrgljivih rezervoarjev
        • 4× 500 lb (227 kg) bomb ali
        • 4× 250 lb (113 kg) bomb; ali
      • 6× 500 lb (227 kg) bomb; ali
      • 6× 250 lb (113 kg) bomb
    • Zunanji nosilci:
      • 10× 5 in (127 mm) nevodenih raket HVAR; ali
      • 2× 500 lb (227 kg) bombe; ali
      • 2× 250 lb (113 kg) bombe
  • P-38 v letu.

  • Najbolj uspešna asa na P-38. Na levi Dick Bong (40 zmag) in Tommy McGuire (38 zmag). Slikano 15. novembra 1944 na Filipnih.

  • Richard Bong pred svojim P-38, zroč v sliko svoje zaročenke Marge.

  • Thomas McGuire pred svojim P-38 "Pudgy".

  • Tako je izgledala izdelava P-38 pred 75. leti.

  • Instrumentna plošča P-38.

  • Dostavna pilotka Ruth Dailey se vkrcava v novega P-38.

  • Nenavaden P-38. Namesto uvlačljivih koles ima uvlačljive smuči.

  • Povojni "višek" P-38M. Danes bi jih v trenutku razgrabili.

  • Ohranjen P-38 v lasti Red Bulla.

  • Glej tudi[uredi | uredi kodo]

    Sklici in reference[uredi | uredi kodo]

    1. "Honduran Air Force." aeroflight.co.uk. Retrieved: 10 October 2010.
    2. "Army Air Forces Statistical Digest - World War II. Table 82—Average Cost of Airplanes Authorized, by principal model: Fiscal Years 1939–1945". maxwell.af.mil. Retrieved: 7 February 2009.
    3. "P-38 Lightning." National Museum of the United States Air Force. Retrieved: 21 January 2007.
    4. "Lockheed P-38 Lightning Pilot's Flight Manual." USAAF, 1944. Retrieved: 14 December 2009.
    5. "P-38H/J/L Pilot's Flight Operating Instructions" (PDF). Pridobljeno dne February 7, 2014. 

    Bibliografija[uredi | uredi kodo]

    • Abela, Stephen. "Airfield Tales: Lincolnshire’s wartime legacy." www.jamesabela.co.uk (Video documentary), 2006.
    • Bodie, Warren M. (1991). The Lockheed P-38 Lightning: The Definitive Story of Lockheed's P-38 Fighter. Hayesville, North Carolina: Widewing Publications. ISBN 0-9629359-5-6. 
    • Boyne, Walter J. Silver wings: A History of the United States Air Force. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1993. ISBN 0-67178-537-0.
    • Bruning, John R. Jungle Ace. Dulles, Virginia: Potomac Books, 2003. ISBN 1-61234-086-5.
    • Caidin, Martin. Fork-tailed Devil. New York: Ballantine Books, 1983. ISBN 0-345-31292-9.
    • Cain, Charles W. and Mike Jerram. Fighters of World War II. New York: Exeter Books, 1979. ISBN 0-89673-026-3.
    • Cesarani, David and Sarah Kavanaugh. Holocaust: Critical Concepts in Historical Studies, Volume 5. Abingdon, Oxford, UK: Routledge, 2004. ISBN 0-415-31871-8.
    • Christy, Joe and Jeffrey L. Ethell. P-38 Lightning at War. New York: Scribners, 1977. ISBN 0-684-15740-3.
    • Dimensione cielo. Caccia Assalto 3 – aerei italiani nella 2a guerra mondiale (in Italian). Rome: Edizioni Bizzarri, 1973. NO ISBN.
    • Donald, David, ur. (1997). Lockheed P-38 Lightning. The Encyclopedia of World Aircraft. Etobicoke, Ontario, Canada: Prospero Books. ISBN 1-85605-375-X. 
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    • Neulen, Hans Werner. In the Skies of Europe. Ramsbury, Marlborough, UK: The Crowood Press, 2000. ISBN 1-86126-799-1.
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    Zunanje povezave[uredi | uredi kodo]