Demokratični socializem

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Demokratični socializem je izraz v okviru politične filozofije socializma in politična opredelitev. Demokratični socialisti se zavzemajo za politično demokracijo in gospodarstvo v družbeni lasti[1] s poudarkom na delavskem samoupravljanju in demokratičnem nadzoru gospodarskih institucij v okviru tržne ekonomije ali neke oblike decentraliziranega načrtovanega socialističnega gospodarstva.[2] Večina demokratičnih socialistov zagovarja postopen prehod k socializmu,[3] a pojem idejno ne izključuje možnosti revolucionarne vzpostavitve socializma.[4] Skupno družbeno lastništvo v demokratičnemu socializmu načeloma vključuje zgolj produkcijska sredstva in pomembno infrastrukturo, ne pa tudi osebne lastnine, prebivališč ali manjših podjetij.[5]

Demokratični socializem zastopa demokratično politično ureditev in hkrati demokratično oz. skupinsko lastništvo in upravljanje gospodarstva oz. proizvodnje.[6] Fraza demokratični socializem poudarja ideološko razliko z marksistično-leninistično različico socializma, ki jo mnogi obravnavajo kot nedemokratično oz. avtoritarno v praksi.[7][8][9][10] Demokratični socialisti nasprotujejo centraliziranemu in planskemu ekonomskemu sistemu ter zavračajo politično ureditev, uveljavljeno v Sovjetski zvezi in drugih marksistično-leninističnih državah v začetku 20. stoletja, saj jo smatrajo za avtoritarno.[10] Demokratični socializem zavrača samooklicane socialistične države tako kot marksizem-leninizem in njegove izpeljave, kot sta npr. stalinizem in maoizem. Temeljne nazorske razlike med demokratičnim socializmom in socializmom v okviru marksizma-leninizma ponazarjata dihotomiji demokratičnost/avtoritarnost in revolucionarnost/reformističnost ter pomen aktivnega sodelovanja prebivalstva in skupin delovcev pri gospodarskemu odločanju pri demokratičnemu socializmu v nasprotju z nacionalizacijo in centraliziranemu gospodarskemu upravljanju (naj bo oblast demokratična ali ne) v okviru državnega socializma, značilnega za marksistično-leninistične ureditve.[11][12][13][14][15]

Demokratični socializem je zavezan k eventuelnemu prehodu iz kapitalistične v socialistično ekonomsko ureditev, za razliko od novodobne socialne demokracije, ki podpira zgolj progresivne ekonomske reforme v okviru kapitalistične ekonomije.[7][8][16][17][18] Do 1970-ih sta bila izraza "socialna demokracija" in "demokratični socializem" sinonima. V naslednjih desetletjih je zaton kejnzijanizma privedel do ideološke preobrazbe številnih socialdemokratskih političnih strank.[19][20][21][22][23] Tradicionalna socialdemokracija - tako kot demokratični socializem - je načeloma zagovarjala reformistični oz. evolucijski prehod v socializem namesto revolucionarnega.[24] [25] Socialni demokrati, ki so ostali idejno zavezani k postopnemu prehodu iz kapitalizma v socializem so se opredelili kot demokratični socialisti.[26] Demokratični socialisti in socialni demokrati pogosto zastopajo podobne kratkoročne politične cilje,[16][17][18] vključno s kenezijanskimi političnoekonomskimi pristopi, regulacijo, mešano ekonomijo, javnimi pokojninskimi programi in ostalimi programi socialnega varstva, širitvijo javnega lastništva nad pomembnimi industrijami[5] in univerzalnemu brezplačnemu dostopu do zdravstva in šolstva.[27][28]

Idejne temelje demokratičnega socializma predstavljajo ideje utopičnih socialističnih mislecev 19. stoletja in britanskega čarističnega gibanja, ki so pripisovale temeljen pomen demokratičnemu odločanju in družbenemu lastništvu produkcijskih sredstev. [29] V poznem 19. stoletju in začetku 20. stoletja sta k idejnemu razvoju demokratičnega socializma med drugim prispevala gradualistični reformistični socializem ki ga je v zagovarjalo britansko Fabiansko društvo in pa evolucijski socializem nemškega politika in političnega teoretika Eduarda Bernsteina.[30][31][32]

Marksistični demokratični socialisti poudarjajo dele Marxove misli, ki je zagovarjala demokratičnost, in zavračajo marksizem-leninizem ter druge oblike avtoritarnega socializma. Med akademiki obstaja nestrinjanje glede vprašanja, kaj so bila stališča Karla Marxa glede demokracije. Demokratični socialisti, ki smatrajo marksizem kot v osnovi anti-demokratično ideologijo, marskizem zavračajo.[26]

Sklici[uredi | uredi kodo]

  1. Busky, Donald F. (20 July 2000). Democratic Socialism: A Global Survey. Praeger. pp. 7–8.
  2. Anderson, Gary L.; Herr, Kathryn G. (2007). Encyclopedia of Activism and Social Justice. SAGE Publications. p. 448. ISBN 978-1412918121. "Some have endorsed the concept of market socialism, a post-capitalist economy that retains market competition but socialises the means of production, and in some versions, extends democracy to the workplace. Some hold out for a non-market, participatory economy. All democratic socialists agree on the need for a democratic alternative to capitalism."
  3. Busky, Donald F. (20 July 2000). Democratic Socialism: A Global Survey. Praeger. pp. 10. ISBN 978-0275968861. "The majority of democratic socialists are evolutionary socialists – seeking a very gradual transition to socialism, leaving most industries for the time being in the hands of private capitalists."
  4. Kurian, George Thomas; Alt, James E.; Chambers, Simone; Garrett, Geoffrey; Levi, Margaret; McClain Paula D. (12 October 2010). The Encyclopedia of Political Science Set. CQ Press. p. 401. ISBN 978-1933116440. "Though some democratic socialists reject the revolutionary model and advocate a peaceful transformation to socialism carried out by democratic means, they also reject the social democratic view that capitalist societies can be successfully reformed through extensive state intervention within capitalism. In the view of democratic socialists, capitalism, based on the primacy of private property, generates inherent inequalities of wealth and power and a dominant egoism that are incompatible with the democratic values of freedom, equality, and solidarity. Only a socialist society can fully realise democratic practices. The internal conflicts within capitalism require a transition to socialism. Private property must be superseded by a form of collective ownership."
  5. 5,0 5,1 Sargent, Lyman Tower (2008). "The Principles of Democratic Socialism". Contemporary Political Ideologies: A Comparative Analysis (14th ed.). Wadsworth Publishing. p. 117. ISBN 978-0495569398. "Democratic socialism can be characterised as follows:
  6. Busky, Donald F. (20 July 2000). Democratic Socialism: A Global Survey. Praeger. pp. 7–8.
  7. 7,0 7,1 Kurian, George Thomas; Alt, James E.; Chambers, Simone; Garrett, Geoffrey; Levi, Margaret; McClain Paula D. (12 October 2010). The Encyclopedia of Political Science Set. CQ Press. p. 401. ISBN 978-1933116440. "Though some democratic socialists reject the revolutionary model and advocate a peaceful transformation to socialism carried out by democratic means, they also reject the social democratic view that capitalist societies can be successfully reformed through extensive state intervention within capitalism. In the view of democratic socialists, capitalism, based on the primacy of private property, generates inherent inequalities of wealth and power and a dominant egoism that are incompatible with the democratic values of freedom, equality, and solidarity. Only a socialist society can fully realise democratic practices. The internal conflicts within capitalism require a transition to socialism. Private property must be superseded by a form of collective ownership."
  8. 8,0 8,1 Eatwell, Eoger; Wright, Anthony (1 March 1999). Contemporary Political Ideologies: Second Edition. Bloomsbury Academic. p. 80. ISBN 978-0826451736. "So too with 'democratic socialism', a term coined by its adherents as an act of disassociation from the twentieth-century realities of undemocratic socialism [...] but also, at least in some modes, intended to reaffirm a commitment to system transformation rather than a merely meliorist social democracy."
  9. Busky, Donald F. (20 July 2000). Democratic Socialism: A Global Survey. Praeger. pp. 7–8. ISBN 978-0275968861. "Sometimes simply called socialism, more often than not, the adjective democratic is added by democratic socialists to attempt to distinguish themselves from Communists who also call themselves socialists. All but communists, or more accurately, Marxist-Leninists, believe that modern-day communism is highly undemocratic and totalitarian in practice, and democratic socialists wish to emphasise by their name that they disagree strongly with the Marxist-Leninist brand of socialism."
  10. 10,0 10,1 Prychito, David L. (31 July 2002). Markets, Planning, and Democracy: Essays After the Collapse of Communism. Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 72. ISBN 978-1840645194. "It is perhaps less clearly understood that advocates of democratic socialism (who are committed to socialism in the above sense but opposed to Stalinist-style command planning) advocate a decentralised socialism, whereby the planning process itself (the integration of all productive units into one huge organisation) would follow the workers' self-management principle."
  11. Hain, Peter (1995). Ayes to the Left. Lawrence and Wishart.
  12. Kurian, George Thomas; Alt, James E.; Chambers, Simone; Garrett, Geoffrey; Levi, Margaret; McClain Paula D. (12 October 2010). The Encyclopedia of Political Science Set. CQ Press. p. 401. ISBN 978-1933116440. "Though some democratic socialists reject the revolutionary model and advocate a peaceful transformation to socialism carried out by democratic means, they also reject the social democratic view that capitalist societies can be successfully reformed through extensive state intervention within capitalism. In the view of democratic socialists, capitalism, based on the primacy of private property, generates inherent inequalities of wealth and power and a dominant egoism that are incompatible with the democratic values of freedom, equality, and solidarity. Only a socialist society can fully realise democratic practices. The internal conflicts within capitalism require a transition to socialism. Private property must be superseded by a form of collective ownership."
  13. Eatwell, Eoger; Wright, Anthony (1 March 1999). Contemporary Political Ideologies: Second Edition. Bloomsbury Academic. p. 80. ISBN 978-0826451736. "So too with 'democratic socialism', a term coined by its adherents as an act of disassociation from the twentieth-century realities of undemocratic socialism [...] but also, at least in some modes, intended to reaffirm a commitment to system transformation rather than a merely meliorist social democracy."
  14. Busky, Donald F. (20 July 2000). Democratic Socialism: A Global Survey. Praeger. pp. 7–8. ISBN 978-0275968861. "Sometimes simply called socialism, more often than not, the adjective democratic is added by democratic socialists to attempt to distinguish themselves from Communists who also call themselves socialists. All but communists, or more accurately, Marxist-Leninists, believe that modern-day communism is highly undemocratic and totalitarian in practice, and democratic socialists wish to emphasise by their name that they disagree strongly with the Marxist-Leninist brand of socialism."
  15. Prychito, David L. (31 July 2002). Markets, Planning, and Democracy: Essays After the Collapse of Communism. Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 72. ISBN 978-1840645194. "It is perhaps less clearly understood that advocates of democratic socialism (who are committed to socialism in the above sense but opposed to Stalinist-style command planning) advocate a decentralised socialism, whereby the planning process itself (the integration of all productive units into one huge organisation) would follow the workers' self-management principle."
  16. 16,0 16,1 Kurian, George Thomas; Alt, James E.; Chambers, Simone; Garrett, Geoffrey; Levi, Margaret; McClain Paula D. (12 October 2010). The Encyclopedia of Political Science Set. CQ Press. p. 401. ISBN 978-1933116440. "Though some democratic socialists reject the revolutionary model and advocate a peaceful transformation to socialism carried out by democratic means, they also reject the social democratic view that capitalist societies can be successfully reformed through extensive state intervention within capitalism. In the view of democratic socialists, capitalism, based on the primacy of private property, generates inherent inequalities of wealth and power and a dominant egoism that are incompatible with the democratic values of freedom, equality, and solidarity. Only a socialist society can fully realise democratic practices. The internal conflicts within capitalism require a transition to socialism. Private property must be superseded by a form of collective ownership."
  17. 17,0 17,1 Eatwell, Eoger; Wright, Anthony (1 March 1999). Contemporary Political Ideologies: Second Edition. Bloomsbury Academic. p. 80. ISBN 978-0826451736. "So too with 'democratic socialism', a term coined by its adherents as an act of disassociation from the twentieth-century realities of undemocratic socialism [...] but also, at least in some modes, intended to reaffirm a commitment to system transformation rather than a merely meliorist social democracy."
  18. 18,0 18,1 Anderson, Gary L.; Herr, Kathryn G. (2007). Encyclopedia of Activism and Social Justice. SAGE Publications. p. 447. ISBN 978-1412918121. "[...] the division between social democrats and democratic socialists. The former had made peace with capitalism and concentrated on humanizing the system. Social democrats supported and tried to strengthen the basic institutions of the welfare state—pensions for all, public health care, public education, unemployment insurance. They supported and tried to strengthen the labour movement. The latter, as socialists, argued that capitalism could never be sufficiently humanized, and that trying to suppress the economic contradictions in one area would only see them emerge in a different guise elsewhere. (E.g., if you push unemployment too low, you'll get inflation; if job security is too strong, labour discipline breaks down.)"
  19. Barrientos, Armando; Powell, Martin (2004). "The Route Map of the Third Way". In Hale, Sarah; Leggett, Will; Martell, Luke (eds.). The Third Way and Beyond: Criticisms, Futures and Alternatives. Manchester University Press. ISBN 978-0-7190-6598-9.
  20. Romano, Flavio (2006). Clinton and Blair: The Political Economy of the Third Way. Routledge Frontiers of Political Economy. 75. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-37858-1.
  21. Hinnfors, Jonas (2006). Reinterpreting Social Democracy: A History of Stability in the British Labour Party and Swedish Social Democratic Party. Critical Labour Movement Studies. Manchester University Press. ISBN 978-0-7190-7362-5.
  22. Lafontaine, Oskar (2009). Left Parties Everywhere?. Socialist Renewal. Nottingham, England: Spokesman Books. ISBN 978-0-85124-764-9.
  23. Corfe, Robert (2010). The Future of Politics: With the Demise of the Left/Right Confrontational System. Bury St Edmunds, England: Arena Books. ISBN 978-1-906791-46-9.
  24. Hamilton, Malcolm (1989). Democratic Socialism in Britain and Sweden. St Martin's Press.
  25. Pierson, Chris (2005). "Lost property: What the Third Way lacks". Journal of Political Ideologies 10 (2): 145–163. doi:10.1080/13569310500097265. 
  26. 26,0 26,1 Sargent Tower, Lyman (2009). Contemporary Political Ideologies: A Comparative Analysis (14th ed.). Wadsworth Publishing. p. 118.
  27. Sargent, Lyman Tower (2009). Contemporary Political Ideologies: A Comparative Analysis (14th ed.). Wadsworth Publishing. p. 117. "Because many communists now call themselves democratic socialists, it is sometimes difficult to know what a political label really means. As a result, social democratic has become a common new label for democratic socialist political parties."
  28. Hain, Peter (26 January 2015). Back to the Future of Socialism. Policy Press. p. 3. "Crosland's response to 1951 was to develop his 'revisionist' theory of socialism, what today we call democratic socialism or 'social democracy'. By freeing Labour from past fixations that social change had rendered redundant, and by offering fresh objectives to replace those which had already been achieved or whose relevance had faded over time, Crosland showed how socialism made sense in modern society."
  29. Sargent, Lyman Tower (2008). "The Principles of Democratic Socialism". Contemporary Political Ideologies: A Comparative Analysis, 14th Edition. Wadsworth Publishing. p. 118. ISBN 978-0495569398. "Still, the origins of contemporary democratic socialism are best located in the early to mid-nineteenth century writings of the so-called utopian socialists, Robert Owen (1771–1858), Charles Fourier (1772–1837), Claude-Henri Saint-Simon (1760–1825), and Etienne Cabet (1788–1856). All these writers proposed village communities combining industrial and agricultural production, owned in varying ways, by the inhabitants themselves. Thus the essence of early socialism was public ownership of the means of production. These theorists also included varying forms of democratic political decision making, but they all distrusted the ability of people raised under capitalism to understand what was in their own best interest."
  30. Thomson, George (1 March 1976). "The Tindemans Report and the European Future" (PDF). Pridobljeno dne 22 June 2019. 
  31. Cole, Margaret (1961). The Story of Fabian Socialism. Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0804700917. 
  32. Bernstein, Eduard (1899). "Evolutionary Socialism". Marxists Internet Archive. Retrieved 14 May 2019.