Pogovor:Karl Marx

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This is an interesting topic. Please consider adding information about the following about Karl Marx and the world history of socialism and communism:

Marx, Engels, Lenin and Bellamy influenced each other and influenced socialism in the USA, and the world. The book Das Kapital (1867) by Karl Marx and the book Looking Backward (1887) by Edward Bellamy were ranked as the most influential books (first and second respectively) in a Columbia University survey of 1935. The scholars surveyed compared Bellamy and Marx for blending or as alternatives.

A weekly publication that promoted Bellamy’s ideas was sold in advertisements that combined it with Karl Marx's book Capital as a package deal (see The New Nation, 1891-94)

Advertisements listed together the books of Charles Bellamy, Edward Bellamy and Karl Marx (1891).

The writer Gail Collins stated: ...far more American workers read Looking Backward than ever made it through Marx... (Tomorrow Never Knows, The Nation, Vol. 252, Issue # 2, January 21, 1991).

Merritt Abrash described the Bellamy philosophy as Marxism americanized (see Looking Backward: Marxism Americanized, In M.S. Cummings & N.D. Smith (Eds.)., Utopian Studies IV (pp. 6-9). Lanham, MD: University Press of America (1991).

In 1886 Dr. Edward Aveling and his wife Eleanor -the daughter of Karl Marx- wrote that when they toured the U.S. and preached the gospel of socialism as far westward as Kansas, they were surprised by the prevalence of what they termed: unconscious socialism. They said: the American people ... were waiting to hear in their own language what socialism is. Edward Bellamy then wrote Looking Backward in 1887 and it became an international bestseller.

Looking Backward was translated into every major language including Russian. It inspired the creation of 167 “Bellamy Clubs” worldwide. In its time, it was outsold only by Uncle Tom's Cabin and Ben-Hur. The book appears by title in many major Marxist writings of the day. "It is one of the few books ever published that created almost immediately on its appearance a political mass movement." (Eric Fromm, p vi) 165. The book was popular in pre-revolutionary Russia, and Lenin’s wife was known to have read the book, because she wrote a review of it.

Edward Bellamy was the cousin and collaborator of Francis Bellamy (author of the "Pledge of Allegiance"). Francis Bellamy and Edward Bellamy and Charles Bellamy (author of "A Moment of Madness") and Frederick Bellamy (who introduced Edward to "Fourierism") were all socialists. Edward, Charles and Frederick were brothers, and Francis was their cousin.

When Francis Bellamy wrote the original Pledge of Allegiance it had a different hand gesture that was not the modern hand-over-the-heart. Research by Dr. Rex Curry upon the Bellamys led to other amazing discoveries about the Bellamy influence upon socialists in Germany and worldwide.

Zabeležka[uredi kodo]

NB: članek je na novo predelal anonimni uporabnik 92.37.76.81 s kopiranjem čez staro vsebino, glede katere sicer ni neke škode, ker gre samo za nekaj dokumentarnih omemb krajše dolžine. Je pa vsebinsko in oblikovno precej nedodelan. Nekaj opazk: -- skupini mladih Hegelianov (?)
-- predvsem članki o slednjih pa so carja Nikolaja I. (?) leta 1843 prisilili v prepoved časopisa
-- ruski komunist (?) Mikhail Bakunin
-- tale je nakoliko zahtevnejša - so bile preverljive z znanstveno metodo - ker Marx je mislil, da lahko iz dialektike naredi znanost, kar pa je sporno
-- Leninizem, Lenin-Marksizem, Maoizem, Trotskizem, Luxemburgizem (pravopis!)
-- poglavje Pomembni marksisti - mogoče bi se jih dalo razvrstit kronološko. -- citate prestavit v Wikinavedek. Brez težav se lahko tudi poišče iz katere knjige MEID je določen citat.
(Članek se bo predelal po zaključku projekta) Hinko Gnito (pogovor) 12:13, 21. maj 2015 (CEST)

Predelal in prilagodil sem vnose dijakov o Karlu Marxu, tako da zdaj je nek orientacijski minimum.Hinko Gnito (pogovor) 19:43, 31. maj 2015 (CEST)

Predvideval je Oktobrsko revolucijo[uredi kodo]

V članku piše:

V zadnjem desetletju življenja se je njegovo zdravje poslabšalo in v svoje delo ni mogel vložiti enake količine energije kot poprej, a je še vedno komentiral politična stanja, predvsem v Rusiji in Nemčiji. O slednji je napisal Kritiko Gothskega programa (Kritik des Gothaer Programms), za Rusijo pa je predvidel takojšnjo postavitev komunističnega sistema, brez predhodnega kapitalističnega sistema in revolucije.

Škoda, da avtor članka te trditve ni podprl s citatom. Tudi jaz je za zdaj ne bom osporaval s citatom; kolikor sem bral razne razprave o Marxovih stališčih, je imel Marx Ruse - kot vse Slovane - za nižjo raso in zato tudi ni predvideval revolucije v Rusiji - prej v Nemčiji. Z bežnim pregledom sem dobil vtis, da je avtor Marxa idealiziral, podobno kot se je to dogajalo za časa vladanja marksizma. Bilo bi mi všeč, če bi posamezne citate podprl z viri.

Tudi glede odnosa do suženjstva se viri ne strinjajo, da ga je odklanjal; prav nasprotno: občudoval ga je in odobraval, zlasti v ZDA. Takole piše svojemu prijatelju 1846:

»Svoboda in suženjstvo sestavljata antagonizem. Omenil bom neposredno suženjstvo, suženjstvo zamorcev v Surinamu, v Braziliji, v južnem področju Severne Amerike. Neposredno suženjstvo je stožer, prek katerega naša proizvodnja vsakodnevno poganja stroje (macchinaio), kredit, itd. Brez suženjstva ne bi bilo nobenega bombaža, brez bombaža ne bi imeli nobene sodobne industrije. Suženjstvo daje vrednost kolonijam; kolonije so ustvarile svetovno trgovino, a svetovna trgovina je nujen pogoj za strojno industrijo velike stopnje. Brez suženjstva bi se Severna Amerika, najnaprednejša nacija, pretvorila v patriarhalno deželo. Odpravljanje suženjstva bi pomenilo pomesti Severno Ameriko zunaj zemljevida.« [1], kar beremo v razpravi, ki obravnava suženjstvo skozi zgodovino in odnos različnih osebnosti ter institucij do njega.[2].

  1. Lettera di Karl Marx a Pavel Vasilyevich Annenkov, Parigi 28 dicembre 1846, citata in Marx Engels Collected Works, International Publishers (1975), vol. 38, pag. 95
  2. "La bufala illuminista dell’indipendenza dei Paesi latinoamericani. La Chiesa Cattolica e la schiavitù". Uccronline. Pridobljeno dne 16. avgust 2016.