Hitchensova britev

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Hitchensova britev je epistemološko načelofilozofska britev«), ki ga je izrazil pisatelj Christopher Hitchens. Pravi, da breme dokaza glede resničnosti trditve sloni na tistemu, ki trditev postavi; če se bremena ne prevzame, je trditev neutemeljena in njenim nasprotnikom se je ni treba truditi ovreči.

Hitchens je britev pisno izrazil kot: »Kar je mogoče brez dokazov zatrditi, je mogoče brez njih tudi zanikati.«[1] V angleščini se izvirnik glasi: »What can be asserted without evidence can also be dismissed without evidence.«[2][3][4][5]

Izvor[uredi | uredi kodo]

Koncept, poimenovan po novinarju, avtorju in priznanem ateistu Christopherju Hitchensu, odraža Occamovo britev.[6][7][8] Izrek se pojavi v Hitchensovi knjigi z naslovom Bog ni velik: Kako religija vse zastrupi (angleški izvirnik: 2007; slovenski prevod: 2010).[1][9] Zavzema močnejšo držo kot t. i. Saganov standard (»Izredne trditve zahtevajo izredne dokaze«), tako da velja tudi za ne-izredne trditve.

V podobni obliki se načelo pojavi že v latinskem pregovoru quod grātīs asseritur, grātīs negātur, ki se je bolj pogosto začel uporabljati v 18. in 19. stoletju.[10][11] Prvotni pomen latinskega glagola je bil povezan z osvoboditvijo sužnja ali zasužnjenjem.[12] Sčasoma se je (performativni) glagol assero začel uporabljati za zatrjevanje nečesa - pomen, ki se je ohranil do danes.

Viri in literatura[uredi | uredi kodo]

  1. 1,0 1,1 Hitchens, Christopher (2007). God Is Not Great: How Religion Poisons Everything. New York, NY: Twelve Books. str. 150. ISBN 978-1843545743.
  2. Ratcliffe, Susan, ur. (2016). "Oxford Essential Quotations: Facts". Oxford Reference. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780191826719. Pridobljeno dne 4 November 2020. What can be asserted without evidence can also be dismissed without evidence.
  3. Hitchens, Christopher (6 April 2009). God Is Not Great: How Religion Poisons Everything (Kindle izd.). Twelve Books. str. 258. ASIN B00287KD4Q. What can be asserted without evidence can also be dismissed without evidence. This is even more true when the ‘evidence’ eventually offered is so shoddy and self-interested.
  4. McGrattan, Cillian (2016). The Politics of Trauma and Peace-Building: Lessons from Northern Ireland. Abingdon: Routledge. str. 2. ISBN 978-1138775183.
  5. Antony, Michael (2010). "Where's The Evidence?". Philosophy Now: a magazine of ideas. Issue 78. Pridobljeno dne 19 June 2019. As Christopher Hitchens is fond of saying, ‘what can be asserted without evidence can also be dismissed without evidence.’
  6. Kinsley, Michael (13 May 2007). "In God, Distrust". The New York Times. Pridobljeno dne 19 June 2019. Hitchens is attracted repeatedly to the principle of Occam’s razor
  7. Melchior, Jillian (21 September 2017). "Inside the Madness at Evergreen State". The Wall Street Journal. Pridobljeno dne 19 June 2019. Mr. Coffman cited Christopher Hitchens's variation of Occam's razor: 'What can be asserted without evidence can be dismissed without' [evidence]
  8. Hitchens, Christopher (6 April 2009). God Is Not Great: How Religion Poisons Everything (Kindle izd.). Twelve Books. str. 119. ASIN B00287KD4Q. [William Ockham] devised a 'principle of economy,' popularly known as 'Ockham’s razor,' which relied for its effect on disposing of unnecessary assumptions and accepting the first sufficient explanation or cause. 'Do not multiply entities beyond necessity.' This principle extends itself. 'Everything which is explained through positing something different from the act of understanding,' he wrote, 'can be explained without positing such a distinct thing.'
  9. Hitchens, Christopher (2010). Bog ni velik: Kako religija vse zastrupi. Bled: Bled : Produkcijska hiša RED, Zavod za užitke branja, 2010 ([Ljubljana] : Vitez). str. 170. COBISS 252020224. ISBN 978-961-92628-8-7.
  10. Reinhardt, Damion (25 July 2015). "The Long History of Hitchens' Razor". Skeptic Ink. Pridobljeno dne 31 March 2017.
  11. Jon R. Stone, The Routledge Dictionary of Latin Quotations (2005), p. 101.
  12. "A Latin Dictionary". Charlton T. Lewis in Charles Short. 4.12.2020. Pridobljeno dne 4.12.2020.