Volofščina

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Volofščina
Wolof ولوفل
Materni jezikSenegal, Mavretanija, Gambija
EtničnostVolofi
Št. maternih
govorcev
5.454.000 (2001–2016)[1][2]
kot drugi jezik: ?
Pisavavolofska latinica
volofska arabska pisava
garayska pisava
Uradni status
RegulatorCLAD (Centre de linguistique appliquée de Dakar)
Jezikovne kode
ISO 639-1wo
ISO 639-2wol
ISO 639-3Oba:
wol – Wolof
wof – Gambian Wolof
Glottologwolo1247
Linguasphere90-AAA-aa
{{{mapalt}}}
Območja, kjer se govori volofsko
Govorka na Tajvanu

Volofščina (wolofal: ولوفل, wolof) je jezik Senegala, Mavretanije in Gambije ter materni jezik Volofov. Tako kot sosednja jezika serer in fula pripada senegambijski veji nigrskokongovske jezikovne družine. Za razliko od večine drugih jezikov nigrskokongovske družine volofščina ni tonski jezik.

Volofščina je najbolj razširjen jezik v Senegalu, ki ga govorijo Volofi (40 % prebivalstva), za večino drugih Senegalcev pa je drugi jezik.[3] Narečja volofščine se razlikujejo geografsko ter med podeželskimi in mestnimi območji. Glavno narečje v Dakarju je mestna mešanica volofščine, francoščine in arabščine.

Wolof je »mednarodni« standardni zapis in se lahko nanaša tudi na etnično pripadnost ali kulturo Volofov. Variante vključujejo starofrancoske Ouolof, Jollof, Jolof, gambijski Wolof itd., ki se zdaj običajno nanašajo na cesarstvo Jolof ali na riž jollof, navadna zahodnoafriška riževa jed. Danes arhaični obliki sta Volof in Olof.

Angleščina (in slovenščina) naj bi nekatere volofske izposojenke, kot je banana, prevzela prek španščine ali portugalščine.[4]

Zemljepisna razširjenost[uredi | uredi kodo]

Države Volofskega cesarstva

Volofščino govori več kot 10 milijonov ljudi, približno 40 % (ok. 5 milijonov ljudi) prebivalcev Senegala pa govori volofščino kot svoj materni jezik. Večja mobilnost in zlasti rast glavnega mesta Dakar sta ustvarila potrebo po skupnem jeziku: danes dodatnih 40 % prebivalstva govori volofščino kot drugi ali pridobljeni jezik. Na celotnem območju od Dakarja do Saint-Louisa ter zahodno in jugozahodno od Kaolacka govori velika večina ljudi volofsko. Ko se različne etnične skupine v Senegalu zberejo v mestih, običajno govorijo volofski jezik. Tako ga govorijo v skoraj vseh regionalnih in departmajskih prestolnicah v Senegalu. Kljub temu je uradni jezik v Senegalu francoščina.

Čeprav v Gambiji približno 20-25 % prebivalstva govori volofščino kot prvi jezik, ima nesorazmeren vpliv zaradi svoje razširjenosti v Banjulu, glavnem mestu Gambije, kjer ga kot prvi jezik uporablja 75 % prebivalstva. Poleg tega v Serekundi, največjem mestu v Gambiji, čeprav so Volofi manjšina, približno 70 % prebivalcev govori ali razume volofski jezik.

V Mavretaniji govori volofščino približno 7 % prebivalstva (ok. 185.000 ljudi). Večina jih živi ob reki Senegal, ki si jo Mavretanija deli s Senegalom.

Razvrščanje[uredi | uredi kodo]

Volofščina je eden od senegambijskih jezikov, za katere je značilna mutacija soglasnikov.[5] Pogosto pravijo, da je tesno povezan z jezikom fula, ker je Wilson (1989) napačno razumel podatke v sapirju (1971), ki so se dolgo uporabljali za razvrščanje atlantskih jezikov.

Zvrsti[uredi | uredi kodo]

Senegalsko-mavretanska volofščina in gambijska volofščina sta različna nacionalna standarda: uporabljata različno ortografijo in različna jezika (francoščino in angleščino) kot vir tehničnih izposojenk. Vendar sta govorjeni in pisani jezik medsebojno razumljiva. Po drugi strani pa je »volofščina lebu« nerazumljiva napram standardni volofščini, razlika pa je bila zamegljena, ker so vsi govorci »lebu« dvojezični.[6]

Pravopis in izgovorjava[uredi | uredi kodo]

The Lord's Prayer in Latin-script Wolof, Church of the Pater Noster, Jerusalem. The letters ë, é, à and ñ are visible, as are geminate consonants and long double vowels.

Opomba: Fonetični prepisi so natisnjeni v oglatih oklepajih [] v skladu s pravili mednarodne fonetične abecede (IPA).

The Latin orthography of Wolof in Senegal was set by government decrees between 1971 and 1985. The language institute "Centre de linguistique appliquée de Dakar" (CLAD) is widely acknowledged as an authority when it comes to spelling rules for Wolof. The complete alphabet is A, B, C, D, E, Ë, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, Ñ, Ŋ, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, W, X, Y. The letters V and Z are not included in Wolof. [7][8][9]

Wolof is most often written in this orthography, in which phonemes have a clear one-to-one correspondence to graphemes.

Additionally, two other scripts exist: a traditional Arabic-based transcription of Wolof called Wolofal, which dates back to the pre-colonial period and is still used by many people, and Garay, an alphabetic script invented by Assane Faye 1961, which has been adopted by a small number of Wolof-speakers.[10][11]

The first syllable of words is stressed; long vowels are pronounced with more time but are not automatically stressed, as they are in English.

Samoglasniki[uredi | uredi kodo]

Samoglasniki so naslednji:[12]

Samoglasniki
Front Central Back
short long short long short long
Close i ⟨i⟩ u ⟨u⟩
Close-mid e ⟨é⟩ o ⟨ó⟩
mid ə ⟨ë⟩
Open-mid ɛ ⟨e⟩ ɛː ɔ ⟨o⟩ ɔː
Open a ⟨a⟩

There may be an additional low vowel, or this may be confused with orthographic à.[navedi vir]

All vowels may be long (written double) or short.[13] /aː/ is written ⟨à⟩ before a long (prenasalized or geminate) consonant (example làmbi "arena"). When é and ó are written double, the accent mark is often only on the first letter.

Vowels fall into two harmonizing sets according to ATR: i u é ó ë are +ATR, e o a are the −ATR analogues of é ó ë. For example,[14]

Predloga:Interlinear

Predloga:Interlinear

There are no −ATR analogs of the high vowels i u. They trigger +ATR harmony in suffixes when they occur in the root, but in a suffix, they may be transparent to vowel harmony.

The vowels of some suffixes or enclitics do not harmonize with preceding vowels. In most cases following vowels harmonize with them. That is, they reset the harmony, as if they were a separate word. However, when a suffix/clitic contains a high vowel (+ATR) that occurs after a −ATR root, any further suffixes harmonize with the root. That is, the +ATR suffix/clitic is "transparent" to vowel harmony. An example is the negative -u- in,

Predloga:Interlinear

where harmony would predict *door-u-më-léén-fë. That is, I or U behave as if they are their own −ATR analogs.

Authors differ in whether they indicate vowel harmony in writing, as well as whether they write clitics as separate words.

Soglasniki[uredi | uredi kodo]

Consonants in word-initial position are as follows:[15]

Volofski soglasniki
Ustničnik Dlesničnik Nebnik Mehkonebnik Jezičkov Glotalni
Nasal m ⟨m⟩ n ⟨n⟩ ɲ ⟨ñ⟩ ŋ ⟨ŋ⟩[16]
Zapornik prenasalized ᵐb ⟨mb⟩ ⁿd ⟨nd⟩ ᶮɟ ⟨nj⟩ ᵑɡ ⟨ng⟩
voiced b ⟨b⟩ d ⟨d⟩ ɟ ⟨j⟩ ɡ ⟨g⟩
voiceless p ⟨p⟩ t ⟨t⟩ c ⟨c⟩ k ⟨k⟩ q ⟨q⟩ ʔ
Priporniški f ⟨f⟩ s ⟨s⟩ x~χ ⟨x⟩
Trill r ⟨r⟩
Approximant w ⟨w⟩ l ⟨l⟩ j ⟨y⟩

All simple nasals, oral stops apart from q and glottal, and the sonorants l r y w may be geminated (doubled), though geminate r only occurs in ideophones.[17][18] (Geminate consonants are written double.) Q is inherently geminate and may occur in an initial position; otherwise, geminate consonants and consonant clusters, including nt, nc, nk, nq ([ɴq]), are restricted to word-medial and -final position. In the final place, geminate consonants may be followed by a faint epenthetic schwa vowel.

Of the consonants in the chart above, p d c k do not occur in the intermediate or final position, being replaced by f r s and zero, though geminate pp dd cc kk are common. Phonetic p c k do occur finally, but only as allophones of b j g due to final devoicing.

Minimal pairs:[19][20]

bët ("oko") - bëtt ("najti")
boy ("zažgati se") - boyy ("bleščati se")
dag ("kraljevi služabnik") - dagg ("rezati")
dëj ("pogreb") - dëjj ("pizda")
fen ("lagati") - fenn ("nekje, nikjer")
gal ("belo zlato") - gall ("bruhati")
goŋ ("pavijan") - goŋŋ (vrsta postelje)
gëm ("verjeti") - gëmm ("zapreti oči")
Jaw (družinsko ime) - jaww ("nebesa")
nëb ("gnil") - nëbb ("skrivati")
woñ ("nit") - woññ ("šteti")

Toni[uredi | uredi kodo]

Unlike most sub-Saharan African languages, Wolof has no tones. Other non-tonal languages of sub-Saharan Africa include Amharic, Swahili and Fula.

Slovnica[uredi | uredi kodo]

Pomembne značilnosti[uredi | uredi kodo]

Pronoun conjugation instead of verbal conjugation[uredi | uredi kodo]

In Wolof, verbs are unchangeable stems that cannot be conjugated. To express different tenses or aspects of an action, personal pronouns are conjugated – not the verbs. Therefore, the term temporal pronoun has become established for this part of speech. It is also referred to as a focus form.[21]

Example: The verb dem means "to go" and cannot be changed; the temporal pronoun maa ngi means "I/me, here and now"; the temporal pronoun dinaa means "I am soon / I will soon / I will be soon". With that, the following sentences can be built now: Maa ngi dem. "I am going (here and now)." – Dinaa dem. "I will go (soon)."

Conjugation with respect to aspect instead of tense[uredi | uredi kodo]

In Wolof, tenses like present tense, past tense, and future tense are just of secondary importance and play almost no role. Of crucial importance is the aspect of action from the speaker's point of view. The most vital distinction is whether an action is perfective (finished) or imperfective, (still going on from the speaker's point of view), regardless of whether the action itself takes place in the past, present, or future. Other aspects indicate whether an action takes place regularly, whether an action will surely take place and whether an actor wants to emphasize the role of the subject, predicate, or object.[pojasni] As a result, conjugation is done by not tense but aspect. Nevertheless, the term temporal pronoun is usual for such conjugated pronouns although aspect pronoun might be a better term.

For example, the verb dem means "to go"; the temporal pronoun naa means "I already/definitely", the temporal pronoun dinaa means "I am soon / I will soon / I will be soon"; the temporal pronoun damay means "I (am) regularly/usually". The following sentences can be constructed: Dem naa. "I go already / I have already gone." – Dinaa dem. "I will go soon / I am just going to go." – Damay dem. "I usually/regularly/normally/am about to go."

A speaker may express that an action absolutely took place in the past by adding the suffix -(w)oon to the verb (in a sentence, the temporal pronoun is still used in a conjugated form along with the past marker):

Demoon naa Ndakaaru. "I already went to Dakar."

Action verbs versus static verbs and adjectives[uredi | uredi kodo]

Wolof has two main verb classes: dynamic and stative. Verbs are not inflected, instead pronouns are used to mark person, aspect, tense, and focus.[22]:779

Spol[uredi | uredi kodo]

Wolof does not mark sexual gender as grammatical gender: there is one pronoun encompassing the English 'he', 'she', and 'it'. The descriptors bu góor (male / masculine) or bu jigéen (female / feminine) are often added to words like xarit, 'friend', and rakk, 'younger sibling' to indicate the person's sex.

Markers of noun definiteness (usually called "definite articles") agree with the noun they modify. There are at least ten articles in Wolof, some of them indicating a singular noun, others a plural noun. In Urban Wolof, spoken in large cities like Dakar, the article -bi is often used as a generic article when the actual article is not known.

Any loan noun from French or English uses -bi: butik-bi, xarit-bi "the boutique, the friend."

Most Arabic or religious terms use -Ji: Jumma-Ji, jigéen-ji, "the mosque, the girl."

Four nouns referring to persons use -ki/-ñi:' nit-ki, nit-ñi, 'the person, the people"

Plural nouns use -yi: jigéen-yi, butik-yi, "the girls, the boutiques"

Miscellaneous articles: "si, gi, wi, mi, li."

Števniki[uredi | uredi kodo]

Glavni števniki[uredi | uredi kodo]

The Wolof numeral system is based on the numbers "5" and "10". It is extremely regular in formation, comparable to Chinese. Example: benn "one", juróom "five", juróom-benn "six" (literally, "five-one"), fukk "ten", fukk ak juróom benn "sixteen" (literally, "ten and five one"), ñent-fukk "forty" (literally, "four-ten"). Alternatively, "thirty" is fanweer, which is roughly the number of days in a lunar month (literally "fan" is day and "weer" is moon.)

0 tus / neen / zéro [French] / sero / dara ["nothing"]
1 benn
2 ñaar / yaar
3 ñett / ñatt / yett / yatt
4 ñeent / ñenent
5 juróom
6 juróom-benn
7 juróom-ñaar
8 juróom-ñett
9 juróom-ñeent
10 fukk
11 fukk ak benn
12 fukk ak ñaar
13 fukk ak ñett
14 fukk ak ñeent
15 fukk ak juróom
16 fukk ak juróom-benn
17 fukk ak juróom-ñaar
18 fukk ak juróom-ñett
19 fukk ak juróom-ñeent
20 ñaar-fukk
26 ñaar-fukk ak juróom-benn
30 ñett-fukk / fanweer
40 ñeent-fukk
50 juróom-fukk
60 juróom-benn-fukk
66 juróom-benn-fukk ak juróom-benn
70 juróom-ñaar-fukk
80 juróom-ñett-fukk
90 juróom-ñeent-fukk
100 téeméer
101 téeméer ak benn
106 téeméer ak juróom-benn
110 téeméer ak fukk
200 ñaari téeméer
300 ñetti téeméer
400 ñeenti téeméer
500 juróomi téeméer
600 juróom-benni téeméer
700 juróom-ñaari téeméer
800 juróom-ñetti téeméer
900 juróom-ñeenti téeméer
1000 junni / junne
1100 junni ak téeméer
1600 junni ak juróom-benni téeméer
1945 junni ak juróom-ñeenti téeméer ak ñeent-fukk ak juróom
1969 junni ak juróom-ñeenti téeméer ak juróom-benn-fukk ak juróom-ñeent
2000 ñaari junni
3000 ñetti junni
4000 ñeenti junni
5000 juróomi junni
6000 juróom-benni junni
7000 juróom-ñaari junni
8000 juróom-ñetti junni
9000 juróom-ñeenti junni
10000 fukki junni
100000 téeméeri junni
1000000 tamndareet / million

Vrstilni števniki[uredi | uredi kodo]

Vrstilni števniki (prvi, drugi, tretji ...) se tvorijo tako, da se glavnemu števniku (ena, dva, tri ...) doda končnica -éél.

Na primer, dva je ñaar, drugi pa ñaaréél.

Edina izjema v tem sistemu je prvi, ki je bu njëk (ali prilagojena francoska beseda premier: përëmye).

1. bu njëk
2. ñaaréél
3. ñettéél
4. ñeentéél
5. juróoméél
6. juróom-bennéél
7. juróom-ñaaréél
8. juróom-ñettéél
9. juróom-ñeentéél
10. fukkéél

Osebni zaimki[uredi | uredi kodo]

osebek predmet
ednina množina ednina množina
1. oseba man nun ma nu
2. oseba yow yeen la leen
3. oseba moom ñoom ko leen

Časovni zaimki[uredi | uredi kodo]

Spregatev časovnih zaimkov[uredi | uredi kodo]

1. oseba 2. oseba 3. oseba
ednina

"jaz"

množina

"mi"

ednina

"ti"

množina

"vi"

ednina

"on/ona/ono"

množina

"oni"

Situative (Presentative) Perfekt Verb + -ing maa ngi nu ngi yaa ngi yéena ngi mu ngi ñu ngi
Imperfekt maa ngiy nu ngiy yaa ngiy yéena ngiy mu ngiy ñu ngiy
Terminative Perfekt Past tense for action verbs or present tense for static verbs naa nanu nga ngeen na nañu
Prihodnjik dinaa dinanu dinga dingeen dina dinañu
Objective Perfekt Puts the emphasis on the object of the sentence laa lanu nga ngeen la lañu
Imperfekt Indicates a habitual or future action laay lanuy ngay ngeen di lay lañuy
Processive

(Explicative and/or Descriptive)

Perfekt Puts the emphasis on the verb or the state 'condition' of the sentence dama danu danga dangeen dafa dañu
Imperfekt Indicates a habitual or future action damay danuy dangay dangeen di dafay dañuy
Subjective Perfekt Puts the emphasis on the subject of the sentence maa noo yaa yéena moo ñoo
Imperfekt Indicates a habitual or future action maay nooy yaay yéenay mooy ñooy
Neutral Perfekt ma nu nga ngeen mu ñu
Imperfekt may nuy ngay ngeen di muy ñuy

In urban Wolof, it is common to use the forms of the 3rd person plural also for the 1st person plural.

It is also important to note that the verb follows specific temporal pronouns and precedes others.

Literatura[uredi | uredi kodo]

The New Testament was translated into Wolof and published in 1987, second edition 2004, and in 2008 with some minor typographical corrections.[23]

Boubacar Boris Diop published his novel Doomi Golo in Wolof in 2002.[24]

The 1994 song "7 Seconds" by Youssou N'Dour and Neneh Cherry is partially sung in Wolof.

Glej tudi[uredi | uredi kodo]

Reference[uredi | uredi kodo]

  1. "Wolof, Gambian". Ethnologue (angleščina). Pridobljeno dne 2018-12-06.
  2. "Wolof". Ethnologue (angleščina). Pridobljeno dne 2018-12-06.
  3. "Wolof Brochure" (PDF). Indiana.edu. Arhivirano iz prvotnega spletišča (PDF) dne 2018-06-12. Pridobljeno dne 10 June 2018.
  4. Harper, Douglas. "banana". Online Etymology Dictionary. Pridobljeno dne 6 March 2016.
  5. Torrence, Harold The Clause Structure of Wolof: Insights Into the Left Periphery, John Benjamins Publishing, 2013, p. 20, ISBN 9789027255815
  6. Hammarström (2015) Ethnologue 16/17/18th editions: a comprehensive review: online appendices
  7. "Orthographe et prononciation du wolof | Jangileen". jangileen.kalam-alami.net (francoščina). Pridobljeno dne 2017-05-30.
  8. Diouf, Jean-Léopold (2003). Dictionnaire wolof-français et français-wolof. Karthala. str. 35. ISBN 284586454X. OCLC 937136481.
  9. Diouf, Jean-Léopold; Yaguello, Marina (January 1991). J'apprends le wolof Damay jàng wolof. Karthala. str. 11. ISBN 2865372871. OCLC 938108174.
  10. Everson, Michael (26 April 2012). "Preliminary proposal for encoding the Garay script in the SMP of the UCS" (PDF). UC Berkeley Script Encoding Initiative (Universal Scripts Project)/International Organization for Standardization. Pridobljeno dne 5 July 2015.
  11. Ager, Simon. "Wolof". Omniglot. Pridobljeno dne 19 December 2019.
  12. Unseth, 2009.
  13. Long ëë is rare (Torrence 2013:10).
  14. Torrence 2013:11
  15. Omar Ka, 1994, Wolof Phonology and Morphology
  16. Or ⟨n̈⟩ in some texts.
  17. Pape Amadou Gaye, Practical Cours in / Cours Practique en Wolof: An Audio–Aural Approach.
  18. Some are restricted or rare, and sources disagree about this. Torrence (2013) claims that all consonants but prenasalized stops may be geminate, while Diouf (2009) does not list the fricatives, q, or r y w, and does not recognize glottal stop in the inventor. The differences may be dialectical or because some sounds are rare.
  19. Diouf (2009)
  20. "Wollof - English Dictionary" (PDF). Peace Corps The Gambia. 1995. Pridobljeno dne October 23, 2018.
  21. Ngom, Fallou (2003-01-01). Wolof (angleščina). Lincom. ISBN 9783895868450.
  22. Campbell, George; King, Gareth (2011). The Concise Compendium of the World's Languages (2 izd.).
  23. "Biblewolof.com". Biblewolof.com. Pridobljeno dne 2013-04-15.
  24. Encyclopedia of African Literature, p 801

Bibliografija[uredi | uredi kodo]

Jezikoslovje
  • Harold Torrence: The Clause Structure of Wolof: Insights into the Left Periphery. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: Benjamins, 2013.
  • Omar Ka: Wolof Phonology and Morphology. University Press of America, Lanham, Maryland, 1994, ISBN 0-8191-9288-0.
  • Mamadou Cissé: "Graphical borrowing and African realities" in Revue du Musée National d'Ethnologie d'Osaka, Japan, June 2000.
  • Mamadou Cissé: "Revisiter 'La grammaire de la langue wolof' d'A. Kobes (1869), ou étude critique d'un pan de l'histoire de la grammaire du wolof.", in Sudlangues Sudlangues.sn, February 2005
  • Leigh Swigart: Two codes or one? The insiders' view and the description of codeswitching in Dakar, in Carol M. Eastman, Codeswitching. Clevedon/Philadelphia: Multilingual Matters, ISBN 1-85359-167-X.
  • Carla Unseth: "Vowel Harmony in Wolof" in Occasional Papers in Applied Linguistics. No. 7, 2009.
  • Fiona McLaughlin: "Dakar Wolof and the configuration of an urban identity", Journal of African Cultural Studies 14/2, 2001, p. 153–172
  • Gabriele Aïscha Bichler: "Bejo, Curay und Bin-bim? Die Sprache und Kultur der Wolof im Senegal (mit angeschlossenem Lehrbuch Wolof)", Europäische Hochschulschriften Band 90, Peter Lang Verlagsgruppe, Frankfurt am Main, Germany 2003, ISBN 3-631-39815-8.
Slovnica
  • Pathé Diagne: Grammaire de Wolof Moderne. Présence Africaine, Paris, France, 1971.
  • Pape Amadou Gaye: Wolof: An Audio-Aural Approach. United States Peace Corps, 1980.
  • Amar Samb: Initiation a la Grammaire Wolof. Institut Fondamental d'Afrique Noire, Université de Dakar, Ifan-Dakar, Sénegal, 1983.
  • Michael Franke: Kauderwelsch, Wolof für den Senegal – Wort für Wort. Reise Know-How Verlag, Bielefeld, Germany 2002, ISBN 3-89416-280-5.
  • Michael Franke, Jean Léopold Diouf, Konstantin Pozdniakov: Le wolof de poche – Kit de conversation (Phrasebook/grammar with 1 CD). Assimil, Chennevières-sur-Marne, France, 2004 ISBN 978-2-7005-4020-8.
  • Jean-Léopold Diouf, Marina Yaguello: J'apprends le Wolof – Damay jàng wolof (1 textbook with 4 audio cassettes). Karthala, Paris, France 1991, ISBN 2-86537-287-1.
  • Michel Malherbe, Cheikh Sall: Parlons Wolof – Langue et culture. L'Harmattan, Paris, France 1989, ISBN 2-7384-0383-2 (this book uses a simplified orthography which is not compliant with the CLAD standards; a CD is available).
  • Jean-Léopold Diouf: Grammaire du wolof contemporain. Karthala, Paris, France 2003, ISBN 2-84586-267-9.
  • Fallou Ngom: Wolof. Verlag LINCOM, Munich, Germany 2003, ISBN 3-89586-616-4.
  • Sana Camara: Wolof Lexicon and Grammar, NALRC Press, 2006, ISBN 978-1-59703-012-0.
Slovarji
  • Diouf, Jean-Leopold: Dictionnaire wolof-français et français-wolof, Karthala, 2003
  • Mamadou Cissé: Dictionnaire Français-Wolof, L’Asiathèque, Paris, 1998, ISBN 2-911053-43-5
  • Arame Fal, Rosine Santos, Jean Léonce Doneux: Dictionnaire wolof-français (suivi d'un index français-wolof). Karthala, Paris, France 1990, ISBN 2-86537-233-2.
  • Pamela Munro, Dieynaba Gaye: Ay Baati Wolof – A Wolof Dictionary. UCLA Occasional Papers in Linguistics, No. 19, Los Angeles, California, 1997.
  • Peace Corps Gambia: Wollof-English Dictionary, PO Box 582, Banjul, the Gambia, 1995 (no ISBN, available as PDF file Arhivirano 2010-01-05 na Wayback Machine. via the internet; this book refers solely to the dialect spoken in the Gambia and does not use the standard orthography of CLAD).
  • Nyima Kantorek: Wolof Dictionary & Phrasebook, Hippocrene Books, 2005, ISBN 0-7818-1086-8 (this book refers predominantly to the dialect spoken in the Gambia and does not use the standard orthography of CLAD).
  • Sana Camara: Wolof Lexicon and Grammar, NALRC Press, 2006, ISBN 978-1-59703-012-0.
Uradni dokumenti
  • Government of Senegal, Décret n° 71-566 du 21 mai 1971 relatif à la transcription des langues nationales, modifié par décret n° 72-702 du 16 juin 1972.
  • Government of Senegal, Décrets n° 75-1026 du 10 octobre 1975 et n° 85-1232 du 20 novembre 1985 relatifs à l'orthographe et à la séparation des mots en wolof.
  • Government of Senegal, Décret n° 2005-992 du 21 octobre 2005 relatif à l'orthographe et à la séparation des mots en wolof.

Zunanje povezave[uredi | uredi kodo]

Predloga:Scholia


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