Uporabnik:Pinky sl/Peskovnik2

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This page refers only to birds that have gone extinct since the year 1500 A.D./C.E. and usually were subject to scientific study while alive.
For a list of early taxa of birds known only from fossils, see List of fossil birds. For birds extinct in Late Quaternary prehistoric times and usually known from specimens not completely fossilized, see Prazgodovinske ptice poznega kvartarja.

Od leta 1500 je izumrlo več kot 190 vrst ptic, in zdi se, da se stopnja izumiranja povečanje. Situacija je nazorna na Havajih, kjer je živelo 30% vseh znanih pred kratkim izumrlih taksonov ptic. Druga področja, kot je Guam, so tudi bili prizadeti. Guam je izgubil v zadnjih 30 letih več kot 60% svojih domačih taksonov ptic, mnogi od njih so izumrli zaradi vnesene rjave drevesne kače (Boiga irregularis).

Danes obstaja okoli 10000 vrst ptic, s približno 1200 vrstami pod grožnjo izumrtja. Razen za nekaj vrst je grožnje ustvaril človek sam.

Otoške vrste na splošno, zlasti pa neleteče otoške vrste so najbolj ogrožene. Nesorazmerno veliko število tukalic (Rallidae) v seznamu kaže težnjo izgube sposobnosti letenja, ko so le-te geografsko izolirane. Kar nekaj vrst tukalic je izumrlo preden so jih lahko opisali znanstveniki; ti taksoni, so navedeni v članku Prazgodovinske ptice poznega kvartarja.

Datumi izumrtja, podani spodaj, so približna ocena dejanskega datuma izumrtja. V nekaterih primerih so podani precizni datumi, ker je včasih mogoče izslediti datum izumrtja zelo natančno (leto, ali celo dan) - Salpinctes obsoletus exsul je verjetno najbolj skrajni primer, njegovo izumrtje lahko določimo z natančnostjo mogoče pol ure. Datumi izumrtja so v literaturi ponavadi datumi zadnjih preverjenih zapisov (verodostojno opazovanje ali vzeti vzorec). Številne pacifiške vrste ptic so izumrle kmalu po obiskih evropejcev, vendar pa je to obdobje dolgo več kot stoletje, saj so otoke, na katerih so se te ptice pojavljale, znanstveniki le redko obiskovali.

Dodo, Roelant Savery's 1626 slika nagačenega primerka.

Izumrle vrste ptic[uredi | uredi kodo]

Struthioniformes (nojevci)[uredi | uredi kodo]

Dromaius ater, King Island emu

Noj in sorodni nojevci.

Taksonomija slonje ptice še ni popolnoma razrešena, je pa gotovo, da je vsaj en takson preživel do približno pred 1000 leti.
Splošno mnenje je, da je gorska moa izumrla do leta 1500, to je edina vrsta moe, ki je glede na današnje znanje morda preživela tudi pozneje, morda še do leta 1830.
King Island emu je v divjini izumrl okoli leta 1805, zadnji osebek v ujetništvu pa je umrl v 1822 v Jardin des Plantes.
  • Dromaius baudinianus, Kangaroo Island emu (Kangaroo Island, Australija, 1827)
  • Apteryx occidentalis, pegasti kivi zahodne obale (South Island, Nova zelandija, c. 1900)
Dvomljiva oblika poznana le iz ene same ptice; lahko je podvrsta malega pegastega kivija Apteryx owenii ali hibrid med to vrsto in Apteryx rowi.

Anseriformes (plojkokljuni)[uredi | uredi kodo]

Rhodonessa caryophyllacea, rožnatoglava raca

Race, gosi in labodi.

  • Tadorna cristata, korejska čopasta kozarka (Severovzhodna Azija, pozno 20. stoletje?)
Relikt iz Severovzhodne Azije. Uradno je vrsta kritično ogrožena glede na nedavna nepotrjena poročila.
Uradno je kritično ogrožena; nedavne raziskave je niso ponovno odkrile.
  • Aythya cf. innotata, madagaskarska kostanjevka, (Réunion, Maskareni, okoli leta 1690s)
  • Camptorhynchus labradorius, labradorska raca (severovzhodna Severna Amerika, okoli leta 1880)
  • Mergus australis, aucklandski žagar (Auckland Islands, severozahodni Tihi ocean, okoli leta 1902)

Galliformes (kure)[uredi | uredi kodo]

Coturnix novaezelandiae, novozelandska prepelica

Prepelice in sorodstvo.
Glej tudi Bokaak "Bustard" v poglavju Gruiformes (žerjavovci) spodaj

  • Argusianus bipunctatus, je bil opisan na podlagi enega samega dela peresa, ki so ga našli na neznanem kraju leta 1871. Kasneje so domnevali, da je to izumrla vrsta.
  • Megapodius molistructor je morda na Novi Kaledoniji preživel do konca 18. stoletja. Dokaz za to so opisi ptice imenovane Tetrao australis in kasneje Megapodius andersoni
  • Megapodius amissus iz otoka Viti Levu in mogoče tudi Kadavu, Fidži je lahko preživel do zgodnjega 19. ali celo 20. stoletja kot je predlagano z posrednimi dokazi.
  • Megapodius it otoka Raoul Island (Raoul, Kermadec Islands, 1876)
Za tega megapoda je rečeno, da je naseljeval Raoul Island dokler populacija ni bila uničena ob izbruhu vulkana.
Uradno je to kritično ogrožena vrsta. Z gotovostjo jo niso evidentirali od leta 1876, vendar je temeljito opazovanje še potrebno. V letu 2003 so jo mogoče (čeprav malo verjetno) opazili okoli Naini Tal.

Charadriiformes (pobrežniki)[uredi | uredi kodo]

Pinguinus impennis, orjaška njorka Natural History Museum, London, Anglija

Čaplje, štorklje, galebi in njorke.

Uradno klasificirana kot kritično ogrožena, vendar te ptice ni bila zabeležena od leta 1940 in je skoraj zagotovo izumrla.
Lahko še vedno obstaja; uradno je razvrščen kot kritično ogrožen, morda izumrl.
Lahko še vedno obstaja; uradno je razvrščen kot kritično ogrožen. Nekaj ptic so zabeležili v letu 2004. Prišlo je do nepotrjenega opažanja v Albaniji leta 2007. Raziskavo, ali ta ptica še vedno obstaja, trenutno izvaja RSPB (BirdLife v UK).

Gruiformes (žerjavovci)[uredi | uredi kodo]

Tukalice in sorodniki. Verjetno parafiletski.

  • Leguatov velikan ali géant, domnevno orjaška tukalica iz Maskarenov opisana kot Leguatia gigantea.
Gallirallus pacificus, tahitska tukalica
Uradno je razvrščena kot kritično ogrožena, zadnji zapisi so iz leta 1984 in verjetno je, da so vse razpoložljive habitate prevzeli divji prašiči in psi, ki prežijo na te ptice.
Ptica je poznana iz ene same kože neznanega izvora. Nedavni dokazi kažejo, da je to napaka in da jo je bolje obravnavati kot morf Gallirallus philippensisa.[1]
  • Gallirallus cf. vekamatolu, Vava'u tukalica (Vava'u, Tonga, zgodnje 19. stoletje?)
Ta ptica je poznana samo iz slike, ki jo je narisala leta 1793 ekspedicija Malaspina in očitno prikazuje vrsto Gallirallus.
Porzana sandwichensis, havajska tukalica
  • Gallirallus sp., Norfolk Island tukalica bi lahko bila ptica prikazana na slabem akvarelu narejenem približno leta 1800.
  • Cabalus modestus, chathamska tukalica (Chatham Islands, severozahodni Tihi ocean, c. 1900)
  • Dryolimnas augusti, Réunion tukalica ali duboisova gozdna tukalica, (Réunion, Maskareni, pozno 17. stoletje)
  • Aramides gutturalis, rdečegrla gozdna tukalica (Peru, 20. stoletje?)
  • Mundia elpenor, Ascensionska neleteča tukalica (Ascension Island, Atlantik, pozno 17. stoletje) - prej Atlantisia
  • Porzana astrictocarpus, tukalica Svete Helene (otok Svete Helene, Atlantik, zgodnje 16. stoletje)
  • Porzana palmeri, Laysanska tukalica (Laysan Island, Havaji, 1944)
  • Porzana sandwichensis, havajska tukalica (Big Island, Havaji, c. 1890)
  • Porzana monasa, Kosrae tukalica, (Kosrae, Carolines, c. srednje pozno 19. stoletje)
  • Porzana nigra, Millerjeva tukalica (Tahiti, Society Islands, c. 1800)
Znana je le iz slik in opisov; taksonomski status je negotov ker se domneva tudi, da se slike nanašajo na današnjo Porzana tabuensis, nepikčasto tukalico.
Porzana palmeri, Laysanska tukalica je bila vsejed
Poznana le iz opisov.
Preživela naj bi do c. 1900. V spodnjem desnem kotu Paul Gauguinove slike iz leta 1902 Le Sorcier d'Hiva oa ou le Marquisien à la rta rouge obstaja ptica, ki spominja na opis P. paepae.
Verjetno bi bila bolje uvrščena v rodu Pareudiastes, nepotrjena poročila iz konca 20. stoletja kažejo, da še vedno živi v majhnem številu, in je zato uradno uvrščena med skrajno ogrožene vrste.
Znana le iz enega primerka, verjetno bi bila ta tukalica bolje uvrščena v svojem rodu, Edithornis. Obstaja nekaj nepotrjenih zadnjih opažanj, ki kažejo, da še vedno živi, in je zato uradno razvrščena kot skrajno ogrožena.

Podicipediformes (ponirki)[uredi | uredi kodo]

Grebes.

Uradno je to skrajno ogrožena vrsta, morda izumrl. Število primerkov se je zmanjšalo zaradi uničevanja habitata in križanjem z malim ponirkom. Iz ednine znane lokacije je izginil v 1980ih.
  • Podilymbus gigas, orjaški progastokljuni ponirek (jezero Atitlán, Guatemala, 1989)

Ciconiiformes (močvirniki)[uredi | uredi kodo]

Čaplje in sorodne ptice. Verjetno parafiletski.

Včasih dodeljen roduNycticorax
Znan le iz subfosilnih kosti, vendar je opis F. André Theveta za neletečo Ascension ptico ustrezen le za to vrsto.
Dolgo so jih šteli kot posamezni nomadski primerki avstralskega Ixobrychus minutus male bobnarice. Kosti, ki so jih našli v holocenskih plasteh kažejo na to, da je bil to dejansko ločen takson.

Pelecaniformes (veslonožci)[uredi | uredi kodo]

Kormorani in sorodne ptice.

Procellariiformes (cevonosci)[uredi | uredi kodo]

Petrels, shearwaters, albatrosi in storm-petrels.

Possibly a subspecies of the Black-capped Petrel; unconfirmed reports suggest it might survive. Officially classified as critically endangered, possibly extinct.
  • Pterodroma cf. leucoptera (Mangareva, Gambier Islands, 20th century?)
A wing of a carcass similar to Gould's Petrel was recovered on Mangareva in 1922, where it possibly bred. No such birds are known to exist there today.
Officially critically endangered, possibly extinct, but a thorough survey in 2000 concluded the species was certainly extinct.

Sphenisciformes[uredi | uredi kodo]

Pingvini

  • The Chatham Islands Penguin, Eudyptes sp. (Chatham Islands, SW Pacific), is only known from subfossil bones, but a bird kept captive at some time between 1867 and 1872 might refer to this taxon.

Columbiformes[uredi | uredi kodo]

Male Passenger Pigeon

Pigeons, doves and dodos.
For the "Réunion Solitaire", see Réunion Sacred Ibis.

The passenger pigeon was once probably the most common bird in the world, a single flock numbering up to several billion birds. It was hunted close to extinction for food and sport in the late 19th century. The last individual died in the Cincinnati Zoo in 1914.
  • The Silvery Pigeon, Columba argentina, has not been reliably observed since 1931 and may be extinct. It is difficult to distinguish from the common Pied Imperial Pigeon, however.
  • Bonin Woodpigeon, Columba versicolor (Nakodo-jima and Chichi-jima, Ogasawara Islands, c. 1890)
  • Ryukyu Woodpigeon, Columba jouyi (Okinawa and Daito Islands, Northwest Pacific, late 1930s)
  • Réunion Pink Pigeon, Streptopelia duboisi (Réunion, Mascarenes, c. 1700)
Its generic allocation is not fully resolved. There seems to have been at least another species of pigeon on Réunion (probably an Alectroenas), but bones have not yet been found. It disappeared at the same time.
Its generic allocation is not fully resolved. A possible subspecies of the Madagascar Turtle Dove, this seems not to be the bird observed by Leguat. Introduced rats might have killed it off in the late 17th century.
Also known as the Spotted Green Pigeon, the only known specimen has been in Liverpool Museum since 1851 and was probably collected on a Pacific island for Edward Stanley, 13th Earl of Derby. It has been suggested that this bird came from Tahiti based on native lore about a somewhat similar extinct bird called titi, but this has not been verified.
Officially listed as critically endangered. Only known from 2 specimens taken in 1891, there have been a number of unconfirmed reports from all over the Sulu Archipelago in 1995. However, these reports stated that the bird had suddenly undergone a massive decline, and by now, habitat destruction is almost complete. If not extinct, this species is very rare, but the ongoing civil war prevents comprehensive surveys.
Only known from descriptions of 2 now-lost specimens.
Last recorded in 1927, only 2 specimens exist. Declared extinct in 2005.
Two subspecies, the little-known P. m. mercierii of Nuku Hiva (extinct mid-late 19th century) and P. m. tristrami of Hiva Oa.
Known only from one specimen taken at the only documented sighting in 1953, the validity of this species has been questioned, but no good alternative to distinct species status has been proposed. Officially critically endangered, it might occur on Panay, but no survey has located it. One possible record in 2002 seems not to have been followed up.
  • Mauritius Blue Pigeon, Alectroenas nitidissima (Mauritius, Mascarenes, c. 1830s)
  • Farquhar Blue Pigeon, Alectroenas sp. (Farquhar Group, Seychelles, 19th century)
Only known from early reports; possibly a subspecies of the Comoro or Seychelles Blue Pigeon.
A mysterious bird of unknown affinities, known from a few bones and, as it seems, two historical reports.
  • Dodo, Raphus cucullatus (Mauritius, Mascarenes, late 17th century)
Called Didus ineptus by Linnaeus. A meter-high flightless bird found on Mauritius. Its forest habitat was lost when Dutch settlers moved to the island and the dodo's nests were destroyed by the monkeys, pigs, and cats the Dutch brought with them. The last specimen was killed in 1681, only 80 years after the arrival of the new predators.

Psittaciformes[uredi | uredi kodo]

Parrots.

Mounted specimen of Conuropsis carolinensis, Museum Wiesbaden, Germany
Officially critically endangered, there have been no reliable reports of this bird since the early 20th century. It is, however, small and inconspicuous.
  • Norfolk Island Kākā, Nestor productus (Norfolk and Philip Islands, SW Pacific, 1851?)
  • Society Parakeet, Cyanoramphus ulietanus (Raiatea, Society Islands, late 18th century)
  • Black-fronted Parakeet, Cyanoramphus zealandicus (Tahiti, Society Islands, c. 1850)
  • Paradise Parrot, Psephotus pulcherrimus (Rockhampton area, Australia, late 1920s)
  • The Night Parrot, Pezoporus occidentalis, officially critically endangered, is a mysterious species which is possibly close to extinction. It was only reliably recorded twice in the late 20th century, the last time in 1991. More probably, it still persists in small numbers as an immature bird was found dead in Diamantina National Park in late 2006.
  • The Oceanic Eclectus Parrot, Eclectus infectus, known from subfossil bones found on Tonga, Vanuatu, and possibly Fiji, may have survived until the 18th century: a bird which seems to be a male Eclectus parrot was drawn in a report on the Tongan island of Vavaʻu by the Malaspina expedition. Also a 19th century Tongan name ʻāʻā ("parrot") for "a beautiful bird found only at ʻEua" is attested (see here under "Kaka"). This seems to refer either E. infectus which in Tonga is only known from Vavaʻu and ʻEua, or the extirpated population of the Collared Lory which also occurred there. It is possible but unlikely that the species survived on ʻEua until the 19th century.
  • Seychelles Parakeet, Psittacula wardi (Seychelles, W Indian Ocean, 1883)
  • Newton's Parakeet, Psittacula exsul (Rodrigues, Mascarenes, c. 1875)
  • Thirioux's Grey Parrot, Psittacula bensoni (Mauritius, possible Réunion as Psittacula cf bensoni). Formerly described as Mauritius Grey Parrot, Lophopsittacus bensoni. Known from a 1602 sketch by Captain Willem van West-Zanen and by subfossil bones described by David Thomas Holyoak in 1973. Might have survive to the mid 18th century.
  • Mascarene Parrot, Mascarinus mascarinus (Réunion and possibly Mauritius, Mascarenes, 1834?)
Last known individual was a captive bird which was alive before 1834.
May have survived to the late 18th century.
  • Rodrigues Parrot, Necropsittacus rodericanus (Rodrigues, Mascarenes, late 18th century)
The species N. francicus is fictional, N. borbonicus most likely so.
  • Glaucous Macaw, Anodorhynchus glaucus (N Argentina, early 20th century)
Officially critically endangered due to persistent rumours of wild birds, but probably extinct.
A number of related species have been described from the West Indies, but are not based on good evidence. Several prehistoric forms are now known to have existed in the region, however.
Although the date of the last captive bird's death in the Cincinnati Zoo, 1918, is generally given as extinction date, there are convincing reports of some wild populations persisting until later. Two subspecies, C. c. carolinensis (east and south of the Appalachian range - extinct 1918 or c. 1930) and C. c. ludovicianus (Louisiana Parakeet, west of the Appalachian range - extinct early 1910s).
Only known from descriptions, the former existence of this bird is likely for biogeographic reasons and because details as described cannot be referred to known species.
Recently recognized as a distinct species, this bird has a very restricted distribution and was last reliably recorded in 1940. It was not found during searches in 2004 and 2006 and seems to be extinct; relocation efforts continue but are hampered by the threat of armed conflict.
The extinct amazon parrots were originally described after travelers' descriptions. Both are now considered valid extinct species closely related to the Imperial Amazon.

Cuculiformes[uredi | uredi kodo]

Cuckoos.

Falconiformes[uredi | uredi kodo]

Birds of prey.

  • Cuban Kite, Chondrohierax wilsonii (Cuba, West Indies, early 2000s?)
Often considered a subspecies of the Hook-billed Kite, it is at least critically endangered. While a small remnant probably survives in eastern Cuba, it has not been seen for some years; recent efforts to find the birds have hitherto drawn a blank but continue.
  • The Bermuda Hawk, Bermuteo avivorus, known from Late Quaternary bones from Bermuda (W Atlantic), might have survived to the early 17th century [navedi vir]
  • Guadalupe Caracara, Polyborus lutosus (Guadelupe, E Pacific, 1900 or 1903)
  • Réunion Kestrel, Falco duboisi (Réunion, Mascarenes, c. 1700)

Strigiformes[uredi | uredi kodo]

Typical owls and barn-owls.

  • Réunion Owl, Mascarenotus grucheti (Réunion, Mascarenes, late 17th century?)
  • Mauritius Owl, Mascarenotus sauzieri (Mauritus, Mascarenes, c. 1850)
  • Rodrigues Owl, Mascarenotus murivorus (Rodrigues, Mascarenes, mid-18th century)
The preceding two species were variously placed in Bubo, Athene, "Scops" (=Otus), Strix, and Tyto before their true affinity was realized.
Known only from prehistoric bones, but might still survive.
Two subspecies, S. a. albifacies (South Island and Stewart Island, extinct 1914?) and S. a. rufifacies (North Island, extinct c. 1870s?) - circumstantial evidence suggests small remnants survived until the early/mid-20th century.
  • The Puerto Rican Barn-owl, Tyto cavatica, known from prehistoric remains found in caves of Puerto Rico, West Indies, may still have existed in 1912 given reports of the presence of cave-roosting owls.
  • The Bahaman Barn-owl, Tyto pollens, known from prehistoric remains found on Andros (Bahamas), may have survived to the 16th century as indicated by the "Chickcharnie" legend.
  • Siau Scops-owl Otus siaoensis (20th century?)
Only known from the holotype collected in 1866. Endemic to the small volcanic island of Siau north of Sulawesi in Indonesia. Might still survive as there are ongoing rumours of scops-owls at Siau.

Caprimulgiformes[uredi | uredi kodo]

Caprimulgidae - Nightjars and nighthawks.
Reclusive ground-nesting birds that sally out at night to hunt for large insects and similar prey. They are easily located by the males' song, but this is not given all year. Habitat destruction represents currently the biggest threat, while island populations are threatened by introduced mammalian predators, notably dogs, cats, pigs and mongoose.

Reports of unidentifiable nightjars from the 1980s in habitat appropriate for S. americana suggest that this cryptic species may still exist. Research into this possibility is currently underway; pending further information, it is classified as critically endangered, possibly extinct.
  • Cuban Pauraque, Siphonorhis daiquiri (Cuba, West Indies, prehistoric?)
Described from subfossil bones in 1985. There are persistent rumors that this bird, which was never seen alive by scientists, may still survive. Compare Puerto Rican Nightjar and preceding.

Vaurie's Nightjar (Caprimulgus centralasicus) is only known from a single 1929 specimen from Xinjiang, China. It has never been found again, but the validity of this supposed species is seriously disputed. It was never refuted to be an immature female desert European Nightjar.
The Nechisar Nightjar (Caprimulgus solala) is known only from a single preserved wing of a bird roadkilled on the Nechisar plains in Ethiopia in 1990. Unlikely to be extinct, no dedicated effort has been made to relocate it.

Apodiformes[uredi | uredi kodo]

Swifts and hummingbirds.

Known only from 3 trade specimens of unknown origin. Might still exist.
Sometimes separated in Saucerottia and/or considered a subspecies of the Indigo-capped Hummingbird (as A./S. cyanifrons alfaroana), this bird is known only from a late 19th century specimen and has never been seen since.
A mysterious bird known only from a single specimen of unknown origin. Might be a hybrid (although the specimen is very distinct) or might still exist.
Officially classified as critically endangered, possibly extinct. Known only from 6 pre-1900 specimens, the habitat at the only known site where it occurred has been destroyed. However, the bird's distribution remains unresolved.

Coraciiformes[uredi | uredi kodo]

Kingfishers and related birds.

  • Ryūkyū Kingfisher, Todiramphus (cinnamominus) miyakoensis (Miyako-jima, Ryukyu Islands, late 19th century)
This was probably a subspecies of the Micronesian Kingfisher Todiramphus cinnamominus. Only seen once by scientists, in 1887; the specimen taken is somewhat damaged, making identification by other than molecular analysis difficult.
  • Giant Hoopoe, Upupa antaois (Saint Helena, Atlantic, early 16th century)

Piciformes[uredi | uredi kodo]

Woodpeckers and related birds.

This 60-centimeter-long woodpecker is officially listed as critically endangered, possibly extinct. Occasional unconfirmed reports come up, the most recent in late 2005.
  • There is much uncertainty on whether the North American Ivory-billed Woodpecker (Campephilus principalis principalis) was indeed rediscovered in the White River National Wildlife Refuge of Arkansas in 2004. The Cuban Ivory-billed Woodpecker (Campephilus principalis bairdii) was last seen in 1987 and is generally considered extinct, but there are a few patches of habitat not yet surveyed.

Passeriformes[uredi | uredi kodo]

Perching birds.

The famous Stephens Island Wren, victim of feral cats

Acanthisittidae - New Zealand "wrens"

The species famously (but erroneously) claimed to have been made extinct by a single cat named "Tibbles".
  • Bush Wren, Xenicus longipes (New Zealand, 1972)
3 subspecies: X. l. stokesi (North Island, extinct 1955); X. l. longipes (South Island, extinct 1968); X. l. variabilis (Stewart Island, extinct 1972).

Formicariidae – antpittas and antthrushes

Officially Critically Endangered, this species has not been recorded since 1956 and although some habitat still exists, it was not found in dedicated searches in the 1990s. Nevertheles, its voice – generally the primary mean for locating antpittas – remains unknown, making surveys difficult.

Mohoidae – Hawaiian "honeyeaters". Family established in 2008, previously included in Meliphagidae.

  • Kioea, Chaetoptila angustipluma (Big Island, Hawaiian Islands, 1860s)
  • Hawaiʻi ʻŌʻō, Moho nobilis (Big Island, Hawaiian Islands, 1930s)
  • Oʻahu ʻŌʻō, Moho apicalis (Oʻahu, Hawaiian Islands, mid-19th century)
  • Molokaʻi ʻŌʻō, Moho bishopi (Molokaʻi and probably Maui, Hawaiian Islands, c. 1910 or 1980s)
  • Kauaʻi ʻŌʻō, Moho braccatus (Kauaʻi, Hawaiian Islands, 1987)

Meliphagidae – honeyeaters and Australian chats

Sometimes regarded as subspecies of the New Zealand Bellbird, Anthornis melanura. Unconfirmed records exist from the early-mid 1950s

Acanthizidae – scrubwrens, thornbills, and gerygones

Pachycephalidae – whistlers, shrike-thrushes, pitohuis and allies

  • Mangarevan Whistler, ?Pachycephala gambierana (Mangareva, Gambier Islands, late 19th century?)
A mysterious bird of which no specimen exists today. It was initially described as a shrike, then classified as an Eopsalteria "robin", and may actually be an Acrocephalus warbler.

Dicruridae – monarch flycatchers and allies

  • Maupiti Monarch, Pomarea pomarea (Maupiti, Society Islands, mid-19th century)
  • Eiao Monarch, Pomarea fluxa (Eiao, Marquesas, late 1970s)
Previously considered a subspecies of the Iphis Monarch, this is an early offspring of the Marquesan stock.
Previously considered a subspecies of the Marquesas Monarch, this is another early offspring of the Marquesan stock.
Previously considered another subspecies of the Marquesas Monarch, this was a distinct species most closely related to that bird and the Fatuhiva Monarch.

Corvidae –} crows, ravens, magpies and jays

  • Banggai Crow, Corvus unicolor (Banggai or Peleng Island, Indonesia, 20th century?)
Officially critically endangered, it is known only from two specimens taken on an unspecified island at some date in the late 19th century, probably in 1884 or 1885. Possible sightings in 1981 and 1991, but no unequivocal recent records and amount of habitat destruction suggest this species is extinct.

Vangidae – vangas

An enigmatic bird known only from 2 recently fledged juveniles collected in 1931, it was not found during a thorough search in 1996.

Turnagridae – piopios

Not reliably recorded since about 1900.
Two subspecies, T. c. minor from Stephens Island (extinct c. 1897) and the nominate T. c. capensis from the South Island mainland (last specimen taken in 1902, last unconfirmed record in 1963)
Male (front) and female (back) Huia

Callaeidae – New Zealand wattlebirds

  • Huia, Heteralocha acutirostris (North Island, New Zealand, early 20th century)

Hirundinidae – swallows and martins

Officially critically endangered, this enigmatic species is only known from migrating birds and it was last seen in 1986 at its former roost site. Recent unconfirmed repors suggest it may occur in Cambodia.
Known from a single specimen, this enigmatic swallow probably still exists, but the lack of recent records is puzzling. It is alternatively placed in the genus Hirundo.

Megaluridae – megalurid warblers or grass warblers

Often placed in genus Megalurus, but this is based on an incomplete review of the evidence.

Cisticolidae – cisticolas and allies

A mysterious bird, found in the Tana River basin in small numbers at various dates, but not since 1972. Probably invalid, based on aberrant or hybrid specimens. An unconfirmed sighting was apparently made in 2007 in the Tana River Delta.

Zosteropidae – white-eyes. Probably belong into Timaliidae.

Timaliidae – Old World babblers

Known from a single mid-19th century specimen, this bird may be extinct or could still exist. If the specimen label, usually considered erroneous in claiming "Java" as the bird's origin, is correct, it may have gone extinct earlier.

Sylvioidea incertae sedis

Acrocephalidae – marsh- and tree-warblers

Formerly considered a subspecies of the Tahiti Reed-warbler. Last reliable sighting was in 1981. Survey in 1986/1987 remained unsuccessful. A photograph of a warbler from Moorea in 1998 or 1999 taken by Philippe Bacchet remains uncertain.

Muscicapidae – Old World flycatchers and chats

An enigmatic bird known from 2 or 4 possibly migrant specimens, last recorded in 1918. Might exist in NE Indochina and might be a subspecies of the Hainan Blue Flycatcher.

Turdidae – thrushes and allies

  • Grand Cayman Thrush, Turdus ravidus (Grand Cayman, West Indies, late 1940s)
  • Bonin Thrush, Zoothera terrestris (Chichi-jima, Ogasawara Islands, c. 1830s)
  • ʻĀmaui, Myadestes woahensis (Oʻahu, Hawaiian Islands, mid-19th century)
  • Kāmaʻo, Myadestes myadestinus (Kauaʻi, Hawaiian Islands, 1990s)
  • Olomaʻo, Myadestes lanaiensis (Hawaiian Islands, 1980s?)
Officially critically endangered, possibly extinct because a possible location on Molokaʻi remains unsurveyed. Two subspecies are known from Lanaʻi (M. l. lanaiensis, extinct early 1930s), Molokaʻi (M. l. rutha, extinct 1980s?) and a possible third subspecies from Maui (extinct before late 19th century).

Sturnidae – starlings

Two subspecies, A. f. fusca - Norfolk Island Starling (extinct c. 1923); A. fusca hulliana - Lord Howe Starling (extinct c. 1919).
Only one reliable record since 1956, in 1995, leaves the species' survival seriously in doubt.
  • Bay Starling, Aplonis? ulietensis (Raiatea, Society Islands, between 1774 and 1850)
Usually called "Bay Thrush" (Turdus ulietensis); a mysterious bird from Raiatea, now only known from a painting and some descriptions of a (now lost) specimen. Its taxonomic position is thus unresolvable at present, although for biogeographic reasons and because of the surviving description, it has been suggested to have been a honeyeater. However, with the discovery of fossils of the prehistorically extinct starling Aplonis diluvialis on neighboring Huahine, it seems likely that this bird also belonged to this genus.
The bird variously described as Testudophaga bicolor, Necropsar leguati or Orphanopsar leguati which was considered to be identical with N. rodericanus (which is only known from fossils) was finally resolved to be based on a misidentified partially albinistic specimen of the Martinique Trembler (Cinclocerthia gutturalis)

Mimidae – mockingbirds and thrashers

It is still unknown whether the tiny population rediscovered in 2004 survived Hurricanes Emily and Wilma in 2005. Unconfirmed records in April 2006 and October and December 2007.

Estrildidae - estrildid finches (waxbills, munias, etc)

An enigmatic waxbill not seen since 1950; because part of its habitat is in Upemba National Park it may survive.

Icteridae – grackles

Parulidae – New World warblers

Officially critically endangered, possibly extinct
Officially Critically Endangered. Suitable habitat remains, and there have been unconfirmed records withint the last decade.

Ploceidae – Weavers

Formerly Foudia bruante, which might refer to a colour morph of the Madagascar Fody.

Fringillidae – true finches and Hawaiian honeycreepers

An enigmatic bird known from just 2 specimens collected in 1929. The region where they were taken is politically highly sensitive and consequently difficult to visit. As no threats are known, probably still extant.
  • Bonin Grosbeak, Chaunoproctus ferreorostris (Chichi-jima, Ogasawara Islands, 1830s)
  • ʻŌʻū, Psittirostra psittacea (Hawaiian Islands, c. 2000?)
Officially classified as critically endangered, possibly extinct, this was once the most widespread species of Hawaiian honeycreeper. It has not been reliably recorded since 1987 or 1989.
  • Pila's Palila, Loxioides kikuichi (Kauaʻi, Hawaiian Islands), possibly survived to the early 18th century.
  • Lesser Koa Finch, Rhodacanthus flaviceps (Big Island, Hawaiian Islands, 1891)
  • Greater Koa Finch, Rhodacanthus palmeri (Big Island, Hawaiian Islands, 1896)
  • Kona Grosbeak, Psittirostra kona (Big Island, Hawaiian Islands, 1894)
  • Greater ʻAmakihi, Hemignathus sagittirostris (Big Island, Hawaiian Islands, 1901)
  • Nukupuʻu, Hemignathus lucidus (Hawaiian Islands, c. 2000?)
The subspecies from Oʻahu (H. l. lucidus) has been extinct since the late 19th century, that of Kauaʻi (H. l. hanapepe) most probably since the late 1990s and that of Maui (H. l. affinis) has not been reliably seen since 1995. It is currently classified as critically endangered, possibly extinct.
  • Hawaiʻi ʻAkialoa or Lesser ʻAkialoa, Hemignathus obscurus (Big Island, Hawaiian Islands, 1940)
Sometimes placed in genus Akialoa (as A. obscura).
  • Greater ʻAkialoa, Hemignathus ellisianus (Kauaʻi, Oʻahu, Lanaʻi and prehistorically probably Maui and Molokaʻi, Hawaiian Islands, 1969)
Sometimes placed in genus Akialoa (as A. ellisiana). Often split into Maui Nui ʻAkialoa, H. lanaiensis or A. lanaiensis (Lanaʻi and prehistorically probably Maui and Molokaʻi, Hawaiian Islands, extinct 1892), Oʻahu ʻAkialoa, H. ellisianus or A. ellisiana (Oʻahu, Hawaiian Islands, extinct 1940) and Kauaʻi ʻAkialoa, H. stejnegeri or A. stejnegeri (Kauaʻi, Hawaiian Islands, extinct 1969).
  • Kakawahie, Paroreomyza flammea (Molokaʻi, Hawaiian Islands, 1963)
  • Oʻahu ʻAlauahio, Paroreomyza maculata (Oʻahu, Hawaiian Islands, early 1990s?)
Officially classified as critically endangered, possibly extinct. Last reliable record was in 1985, with an unconfirmed sighting in 1990.
  • ʻUla-ʻai-hawane, Ciridops anna (Big Island, Hawaiian Islands, 1892 or 1937)
  • Black Mamo, Drepanis funerea (Molokaʻi, Hawaiian Islands, 1907)
  • Hawaiʻi Mamo, Drepanis pacifica (Big Island, Hawaiian Islands, 1898)
  • Poʻo-uli, Melamprosops phaeosoma (Maui, Hawaiian Islands, 2004?)
The most recent unequivocal extinction on this list. What was most likely the last known bird died in captivity on 28 November 2004.

Emberizidae – buntings and American sparrow

Officially classified as critically endangered, possibly extinct. It is known only from a single male collected in 1823, and has variously been considered an aberrant Yellow-bellied Seedeater or a hybrid.
mysterious bird formerly misidentified as Slaty Brush-finch described in 2007 on basis of three 20th century museum specimens.


Glej tudi[uredi | uredi kodo]

Opombe[uredi | uredi kodo]

  1. BLI (2008)

Reference[uredi | uredi kodo]

Zunanje povezave[uredi | uredi kodo]