To je peskovnik uporabnika Pinky sl. Uporabnikov peskovnik je podstran uporabnikove strani. Služi testiranju in razvijanju strani in ni enciklopedični članek.
- This page refers only to birds that have gone extinct since the year 1500 A.D./C.E. and usually were subject to scientific study while alive.
- For a list of early taxa of birds known only from fossils, see List of fossil birds. For birds extinct in Late Quaternary prehistoric times and usually known from specimens not completely fossilized, see Prazgodovinske ptice poznega kvartarja.
Od leta 1500 je izumrlo več kot 190 vrst ptic, in zdi se, da se stopnja izumiranja povečanje. Situacija je nazorna na Havajih, kjer je živelo 30% vseh znanih pred kratkim izumrlih taksonov ptic. Druga področja, kot je Guam, so tudi bili prizadeti. Guam je izgubil v zadnjih 30 letih več kot 60% svojih domačih taksonov ptic, mnogi od njih so izumrli zaradi vnesene rjave drevesne kače (Boiga irregularis).
Danes obstaja okoli 10000 vrst ptic, s približno 1200 vrstami pod grožnjo izumrtja. Razen za nekaj vrst je grožnje ustvaril človek sam.
Otoške vrste na splošno, zlasti pa neleteče otoške vrste so najbolj ogrožene. Nesorazmerno veliko število tukalic (Rallidae) v seznamu kaže težnjo izgube sposobnosti letenja, ko so le-te geografsko izolirane. Kar nekaj vrst tukalic je izumrlo preden so jih lahko opisali znanstveniki; ti taksoni, so navedeni v članku Prazgodovinske ptice poznega kvartarja.
Datumi izumrtja, podani spodaj, so približna ocena dejanskega datuma izumrtja. V nekaterih primerih so podani precizni datumi, ker je včasih mogoče izslediti datum izumrtja zelo natančno (leto, ali celo dan) - Salpinctes obsoletus exsul je verjetno najbolj skrajni primer, njegovo izumrtje lahko določimo z natančnostjo mogoče pol ure. Datumi izumrtja so v literaturi ponavadi datumi zadnjih preverjenih zapisov (verodostojno opazovanje ali vzeti vzorec). Številne pacifiške vrste ptic so izumrle kmalu po obiskih evropejcev, vendar pa je to obdobje dolgo več kot stoletje, saj so otoke, na katerih so se te ptice pojavljale, znanstveniki le redko obiskovali.
- 1 Izumrle vrste ptic
- 1.1 Struthioniformes (nojevci)
- 1.2 Anseriformes (plojkokljuni)
- 1.3 Galliformes (kure)
- 1.4 Charadriiformes (pobrežniki)
- 1.5 Gruiformes (žerjavovci)
- 1.6 Podicipediformes (ponirki)
- 1.7 Ciconiiformes (močvirniki)
- 1.8 Pelecaniformes (veslonožci)
- 1.9 Procellariiformes (cevonosci)
- 1.10 Sphenisciformes
- 1.11 Columbiformes
- 1.12 Psittaciformes
- 1.13 Cuculiformes
- 1.14 Falconiformes
- 1.15 Strigiformes
- 1.16 Caprimulgiformes
- 1.17 Apodiformes
- 1.18 Coraciiformes
- 1.19 Piciformes
- 1.20 Passeriformes
- 2 Glej tudi
- 3 Opombe
- 4 Reference
- 5 Zunanje povezave
Izumrle vrste ptic[uredi | uredi kodo]
Struthioniformes (nojevci)[uredi | uredi kodo]
- Aepyornis maximus, in/ali A. medius (Madagaskar, 16. stoletje?)
- Taksonomija slonje ptice še ni popolnoma razrešena, je pa gotovo, da je vsaj en takson preživel do približno pred 1000 leti.
- Megalapteryx didinus, (Južni otok, Nova Zelandija, pozno 15. stoletje?)
- Splošno mnenje je, da je gorska moa izumrla do leta 1500, to je edina vrsta moe, ki je glede na današnje znanje morda preživela tudi pozneje, morda še do leta 1830.
- Dromaius ater, (King Island, Avstralija, 1822)
- King Island emu je v divjini izumrl okoli leta 1805, zadnji osebek v ujetništvu pa je umrl v 1822 v Jardin des Plantes.
- Dromaius baudinianus, Kangaroo Island emu (Kangaroo Island, Australija, 1827)
- Apteryx occidentalis, pegasti kivi zahodne obale (South Island, Nova zelandija, c. 1900)
- Dvomljiva oblika poznana le iz ene same ptice; lahko je podvrsta malega pegastega kivija Apteryx owenii ali hibrid med to vrsto in Apteryx rowi.
Anseriformes (plojkokljuni)[uredi | uredi kodo]
- Tadorna cristata, korejska čopasta kozarka (Severovzhodna Azija, pozno 20. stoletje?)
- Relikt iz Severovzhodne Azije. Uradno je vrsta kritično ogrožena glede na nedavna nepotrjena poročila.
- Alopochen kervazoi, réunion gos (Réunion, Maskareni, okoli leta 1690)
- Alopochen mauritianus, mauricijska gos (Mauritius, Maskareni, okoli leta 1695)
- Anas marecula, raca otoka Amsterdam (otok Amsterdam, Južnoindijski ocean, okoli leta 1800)
- Anas theodori, mauricijska raca (Mauritius in Réunion, Maskareni, pozni 1690)
- Anas oustaleti, marianina mlakarica (otočje Marianas, zahodni Tihi ocean, 1981)
- Chenonetta finschi, Finscheva raca (Nova Zelandija, mogoče preživela do leta 1870)
- Rhodonessa caryophyllacea, rožnatoglava raca (vzhodna Indija, Bangladeš, severni Myanmar, 1945?)
- Uradno je kritično ogrožena; nedavne raziskave je niso ponovno odkrile.
- Aythya cf. innotata, madagaskarska kostanjevka, (Réunion, Maskareni, okoli leta 1690s)
- Camptorhynchus labradorius, labradorska raca (severovzhodna Severna Amerika, okoli leta 1880)
- Mergus australis, aucklandski žagar (Auckland Islands, severozahodni Tihi ocean, okoli leta 1902)
Galliformes (kure)[uredi | uredi kodo]
- Argusianus bipunctatus, je bil opisan na podlagi enega samega dela peresa, ki so ga našli na neznanem kraju leta 1871. Kasneje so domnevali, da je to izumrla vrsta.
- Megapodius molistructor je morda na Novi Kaledoniji preživel do konca 18. stoletja. Dokaz za to so opisi ptice imenovane Tetrao australis in kasneje Megapodius andersoni
- Megapodius amissus iz otoka Viti Levu in mogoče tudi Kadavu, Fidži je lahko preživel do zgodnjega 19. ali celo 20. stoletja kot je predlagano z posrednimi dokazi.
- Megapodius it otoka Raoul Island (Raoul, Kermadec Islands, 1876)
- Za tega megapoda je rečeno, da je naseljeval Raoul Island dokler populacija ni bila uničena ob izbruhu vulkana.
- Coturnix novaezelandiae, novozelandska prepelica (Nova Zelandija, 1875)
- Ophrysia superciliosa, himalajska prepelica (severna Indija, pozno 19. stoletje?)
- Uradno je to kritično ogrožena vrsta. Z gotovostjo jo niso evidentirali od leta 1876, vendar je temeljito opazovanje še potrebno. V letu 2003 so jo mogoče (čeprav malo verjetno) opazili okoli Naini Tal.
Charadriiformes (pobrežniki)[uredi | uredi kodo]
- Vanellus macropterus, javanska priba (Java, Indonezija, sredi 20. stoletja)
- Uradno klasificirana kot kritično ogrožena, vendar te ptice ni bila zabeležena od leta 1940 in je skoraj zagotovo izumrla.
- Prosobonia leucoptera (Tahiti, Society Islands, 19. stoletje)
- Prosobonia ellisi (Moorea, Society Islands, 19. stoletje)
- Numenius borealis, eskimski škurh (severna Severna Amerika, pozno 20. stoletje?)
- Lahko še vedno obstaja; uradno je razvrščen kot kritično ogrožen, morda izumrl.
- Numenius tenuirostris, tenkokljuni škurh (zahodna Sibirija, zgodnja 2000?)
- Lahko še vedno obstaja; uradno je razvrščen kot kritično ogrožen. Nekaj ptic so zabeležili v letu 2004. Prišlo je do nepotrjenega opažanja v Albaniji leta 2007. Raziskavo, ali ta ptica še vedno obstaja, trenutno izvaja RSPB (BirdLife v UK).
- Pinguinus impennis, orjaška njorka (severni Atlantik, zgodnja 1850)
- Haematopus meadewaldoi, kanarska školjkarica (vzhodni Kanarski otoki, vzhodni Atlanitik, c. 1940?)
Gruiformes (žerjavovci)[uredi | uredi kodo]
- Leguatov velikan ali géant, domnevno orjaška tukalica iz Maskarenov opisana kot Leguatia gigantea.
- Nesotrochis debooyi, antilska jamska tukalica znana po predkolumbovski kosti iz Portorika in Deviških otokov.
- Diaphorapteryx hawkinsi, hawkinsonova tukalica (Chatham Islands, severozahodni Tihi ocean, 19. stoletje)
- Aphanapteryx bonasia, rdeča tukalica (Mauritius, Maskareni, c. 1700)
- Aphanapteryx leguati, rodriguesova tukalica (Rodrigues, Maskareni, sredina 18. stoletja)
- Nesoclopeus poecilopterus, progastokrila tukalica (Fidži, Polinezija, c. 1980)
- Gallirallus lafresnayanus, tukalica Nove Kaledonije, (Nova Kaledonija, Melanezija, c. 1990?)
- Uradno je razvrščena kot kritično ogrožena, zadnji zapisi so iz leta 1984 in verjetno je, da so vse razpoložljive habitate prevzeli divji prašiči in psi, ki prežijo na te ptice.
- Gallirallus wakensis, Wake Island tukalica (Wake Island, Mikronezija, 1945)
- Gallirallus pacificus, tahitska tukalica (Tahiti, Society Islands, pozno 18. - 19. stoletje)
- Gallirallus dieffenbachii, dieffenbachova tukalica (Chatham Islands, severozahodni Tihi ocean, sredina 19. stoletja)
- Gallirallus sharpei, Sharpova tukalica (Indonezija?, 20. stoletje?)
- Ptica je poznana iz ene same kože neznanega izvora. Nedavni dokazi kažejo, da je to napaka in da jo je bolje obravnavati kot morf Gallirallus philippensisa.
- Gallirallus cf. vekamatolu, Vava'u tukalica (Vava'u, Tonga, zgodnje 19. stoletje?)
- Ta ptica je poznana samo iz slike, ki jo je narisala leta 1793 ekspedicija Malaspina in očitno prikazuje vrsto Gallirallus.
- Gallirallus sp., Norfolk Island tukalica bi lahko bila ptica prikazana na slabem akvarelu narejenem približno leta 1800.
- Cabalus modestus, chathamska tukalica (Chatham Islands, severozahodni Tihi ocean, c. 1900)
- Dryolimnas augusti, Réunion tukalica ali duboisova gozdna tukalica, (Réunion, Maskareni, pozno 17. stoletje)
- Aramides gutturalis, rdečegrla gozdna tukalica (Peru, 20. stoletje?)
- Mundia elpenor, Ascensionska neleteča tukalica (Ascension Island, Atlantik, pozno 17. stoletje) - prej Atlantisia
- Porzana astrictocarpus, tukalica Svete Helene (otok Svete Helene, Atlantik, zgodnje 16. stoletje)
- Porzana palmeri, Laysanska tukalica (Laysan Island, Havaji, 1944)
- Porzana sandwichensis, havajska tukalica (Big Island, Havaji, c. 1890)
- Porzana monasa, Kosrae tukalica, (Kosrae, Carolines, c. srednje pozno 19. stoletje)
- Porzana nigra, Millerjeva tukalica (Tahiti, Society Islands, c. 1800)
- Znana je le iz slik in opisov; taksonomski status je negotov ker se domneva tudi, da se slike nanašajo na današnjo Porzana tabuensis, nepikčasto tukalico.
- Aphanocrex podarces (otok Svete Helene, Atlantik, 16. stoletje) - prej Atlantisia
- Porphyrio albus (Lord Howe Island, severozahodni Tihi ocean, zgodnje 19. stoletje)
- Porphyrio coerulescens (Réunion, Maskareni, 18. stoletje)
- Poznana le iz opisov.
- Porphyrio paepae (Hiva Oa in Tahuata, Marquesas)
- Preživela naj bi do c. 1900. V spodnjem desnem kotu Paul Gauguinove slike iz leta 1902 Le Sorcier d'Hiva oa ou le Marquisien à la rta rouge obstaja ptica, ki spominja na opis P. paepae.
- Porphyrio mantelli znana iz subfosilne kosti najdene na North Island, Nova Zelandija, je morda preživela do 1894 ali kasneje.
- Porphyrio kukwiedei iz New Caledonia, Melanezija
- Gallinula pacifica, samoanska gozdna tukalica (Savai'i, Samoa, 1907?)
- Verjetno bi bila bolje uvrščena v rodu Pareudiastes, nepotrjena poročila iz konca 20. stoletja kažejo, da še vedno živi v majhnem številu, in je zato uradno uvrščena med skrajno ogrožene vrste.
- Gallinula silvestris, makirska gozdna tukalica (Makira, Solomon Islands, srednje 20. stoletje?)
- Znana le iz enega primerka, verjetno bi bila ta tukalica bolje uvrščena v svojem rodu, Edithornis. Obstaja nekaj nepotrjenih zadnjih opažanj, ki kažejo, da še vedno živi, in je zato uradno razvrščena kot skrajno ogrožena.
Podicipediformes (ponirki)[uredi | uredi kodo]
- Podiceps andinus, kolumbijski ponirek (področje Bogote, Kolumbija, 1977)
- Tachybaptus rufolavatus, aloatrijski ponirek (jezero Alaotra, Madagaskar, pozna 1980?)
- Uradno je to skrajno ogrožena vrsta, morda izumrl. Število primerkov se je zmanjšalo zaradi uničevanja habitata in križanjem z malim ponirkom. Iz ednine znane lokacije je izginil v 1980ih.
- Podilymbus gigas, orjaški progastokljuni ponirek (jezero Atitlán, Guatemala, 1989)
Ciconiiformes (močvirniki)[uredi | uredi kodo]
- Nyctanassa carcinocatactes, bermudski kvakač (Bermudi, zahodni Atlantik, 17. stoletje)
- Včasih dodeljen roduNycticorax
- Nycticorax duboisi, Réunion kvakač (Réunion, Maskareni, pozno 17. stoletje)
- Nycticorax mauritianus, mauricijski kvakač (Mauritius, Maskareni, c. 1700)
- Nycticorax megacephalus, rodrigueški kvakač (Rodrigues, Maskareni, srednje-18. stoletje)
- Nycticorax olsoni, ascensionski kvakač (Ascension Island, Atlantik, late 16. stoletje?)
- Znan le iz subfosilnih kosti, vendar je opis F. André Theveta za neletečo Ascension ptico ustrezen le za to vrsto.
- Ixobrychus novaezelandiae, novozelandska čapljica (Nova Zelandija, pozno 19. stoletje)
- Dolgo so jih šteli kot posamezni nomadski primerki avstralskega Ixobrychus minutus male bobnarice. Kosti, ki so jih našli v holocenskih plasteh kažejo na to, da je bil to dejansko ločen takson.
- Threskiornis solitarius, Réunion sveti ibis (Réunion, Maskareni, zgodnje 18. stoletje)
Pelecaniformes (veslonožci)[uredi | uredi kodo]
Kormorani in sorodne ptice.
- Phalacrocorax perspicillatus, kormoran očalar (Komandorski otoki, severni Tihi ocean, c. 1850)
Procellariiformes (cevonosci)[uredi | uredi kodo]
- Bulweria bifax Small Saint Helena Petrel, (Saint Helena, Atlantic, early 16th century)
- Puffinus parvus Bermuda Shearwater, (Bermuda, West Atlantic, 16th century)
- Pseudobulweria rupinarum, Large Saint Helena Petrel, (Saint Helena, Atlantic, early 16th century)
- Pterodroma caribbaea, Jamaica Petrel, (Jamaica, West Indies)
- Possibly a subspecies of the Black-capped Petrel; unconfirmed reports suggest it might survive. Officially classified as critically endangered, possibly extinct.
- Pterodroma cf. leucoptera (Mangareva, Gambier Islands, 20th century?)
- A wing of a carcass similar to Gould's Petrel was recovered on Mangareva in 1922, where it possibly bred. No such birds are known to exist there today.
- Officially critically endangered, possibly extinct, but a thorough survey in 2000 concluded the species was certainly extinct.
- The Chatham Islands Penguin, Eudyptes sp. (Chatham Islands, SW Pacific), is only known from subfossil bones, but a bird kept captive at some time between 1867 and 1872 might refer to this taxon.
- Saint Helena Dove, Dysmoropelia dekarchiskos, possibly survived into the Modern Era.
- Passenger Pigeon, Ectopistes migratorius (Eastern North America, 1914)
- The passenger pigeon was once probably the most common bird in the world, a single flock numbering up to several billion birds. It was hunted close to extinction for food and sport in the late 19th century. The last individual died in the Cincinnati Zoo in 1914.
- The Silvery Pigeon, Columba argentina, has not been reliably observed since 1931 and may be extinct. It is difficult to distinguish from the common Pied Imperial Pigeon, however.
- Bonin Woodpigeon, Columba versicolor (Nakodo-jima and Chichi-jima, Ogasawara Islands, c. 1890)
- Ryukyu Woodpigeon, Columba jouyi (Okinawa and Daito Islands, Northwest Pacific, late 1930s)
- Réunion Pink Pigeon, Streptopelia duboisi (Réunion, Mascarenes, c. 1700)
- Its generic allocation is not fully resolved. There seems to have been at least another species of pigeon on Réunion (probably an Alectroenas), but bones have not yet been found. It disappeared at the same time.
- Rodrigues Turtle Dove, Streptopelia rodericana (Rodrigues, Mascarenes, before 1690?)
- Its generic allocation is not fully resolved. A possible subspecies of the Madagascar Turtle Dove, this seems not to be the bird observed by Leguat. Introduced rats might have killed it off in the late 17th century.
- Liverpool Pigeon, "Caloenas" maculata
- Also known as the Spotted Green Pigeon, the only known specimen has been in Liverpool Museum since 1851 and was probably collected on a Pacific island for Edward Stanley, 13th Earl of Derby. It has been suggested that this bird came from Tahiti based on native lore about a somewhat similar extinct bird called titi, but this has not been verified.
- Sulu Bleeding-heart, Gallicolumba menagei (Tawitawi, Philippines, late 1990s?)
- Officially listed as critically endangered. Only known from 2 specimens taken in 1891, there have been a number of unconfirmed reports from all over the Sulu Archipelago in 1995. However, these reports stated that the bird had suddenly undergone a massive decline, and by now, habitat destruction is almost complete. If not extinct, this species is very rare, but the ongoing civil war prevents comprehensive surveys.
- Norfolk Island Ground-dove, Gallicolumba norfolciensis (Norfolk Island, Southwest Pacific, c. 1800)
- Tanna Ground-dove, Gallicolumba ferruginea (Tanna, Vanuatu, late 18th-19th century)
- Only known from descriptions of 2 now-lost specimens.
- Thick-billed Ground-dove, Gallicolumba salamonis (Makira and Ramos, Solomon Islands, mid-20th century?)
- Last recorded in 1927, only 2 specimens exist. Declared extinct in 2005.
- Choiseul Crested Pigeon, Microgoura meeki (Choiseul, Solomon Islands, early 20th century)
- Red-moustached Fruit-dove, Ptilinopus mercierii (Nuku Hiva and Hiva Oa, Marquesas, mid-20th century)
- Two subspecies, the little-known P. m. mercierii of Nuku Hiva (extinct mid-late 19th century) and P. m. tristrami of Hiva Oa.
- Negros Fruit-dove, Ptilinopus arcanus (Negros, Philippines, late 20th century?)
- Known only from one specimen taken at the only documented sighting in 1953, the validity of this species has been questioned, but no good alternative to distinct species status has been proposed. Officially critically endangered, it might occur on Panay, but no survey has located it. One possible record in 2002 seems not to have been followed up.
- Mauritius Blue Pigeon, Alectroenas nitidissima (Mauritius, Mascarenes, c. 1830s)
- Farquhar Blue Pigeon, Alectroenas sp. (Farquhar Group, Seychelles, 19th century)
- Rodrigues Grey Pigeon, "Alectroenas" rodericana (Rodrigues, Mascarenes, mid-18th century)
- A mysterious bird of unknown affinities, known from a few bones and, as it seems, two historical reports.
- Dodo, Raphus cucullatus (Mauritius, Mascarenes, late 17th century)
- Called Didus ineptus by Linnaeus. A meter-high flightless bird found on Mauritius. Its forest habitat was lost when Dutch settlers moved to the island and the dodo's nests were destroyed by the monkeys, pigs, and cats the Dutch brought with them. The last specimen was killed in 1681, only 80 years after the arrival of the new predators.
- Rodrigues Solitaire, Pezophaps solitaria (Rodrigues, Mascarenes, c. 1730)
- New Caledonian Lorikeet, Charmosyna diadema (New Caledonia, Melanesia, mid-20th century?)
- Officially critically endangered, there have been no reliable reports of this bird since the early 20th century. It is, however, small and inconspicuous.
- Norfolk Island Kākā, Nestor productus (Norfolk and Philip Islands, SW Pacific, 1851?)
- Society Parakeet, Cyanoramphus ulietanus (Raiatea, Society Islands, late 18th century)
- Black-fronted Parakeet, Cyanoramphus zealandicus (Tahiti, Society Islands, c. 1850)
- Paradise Parrot, Psephotus pulcherrimus (Rockhampton area, Australia, late 1920s)
- The Night Parrot, Pezoporus occidentalis, officially critically endangered, is a mysterious species which is possibly close to extinction. It was only reliably recorded twice in the late 20th century, the last time in 1991. More probably, it still persists in small numbers as an immature bird was found dead in Diamantina National Park in late 2006.
- The Oceanic Eclectus Parrot, Eclectus infectus, known from subfossil bones found on Tonga, Vanuatu, and possibly Fiji, may have survived until the 18th century: a bird which seems to be a male Eclectus parrot was drawn in a report on the Tongan island of Vavaʻu by the Malaspina expedition. Also a 19th century Tongan name ʻāʻā ("parrot") for "a beautiful bird found only at ʻEua" is attested (see here under "Kaka"). This seems to refer either E. infectus which in Tonga is only known from Vavaʻu and ʻEua, or the extirpated population of the Collared Lory which also occurred there. It is possible but unlikely that the species survived on ʻEua until the 19th century.
- Seychelles Parakeet, Psittacula wardi (Seychelles, W Indian Ocean, 1883)
- Newton's Parakeet, Psittacula exsul (Rodrigues, Mascarenes, c. 1875)
- Thirioux's Grey Parrot, Psittacula bensoni (Mauritius, possible Réunion as Psittacula cf bensoni). Formerly described as Mauritius Grey Parrot, Lophopsittacus bensoni. Known from a 1602 sketch by Captain Willem van West-Zanen and by subfossil bones described by David Thomas Holyoak in 1973. Might have survive to the mid 18th century.
- Mascarene Parrot, Mascarinus mascarinus (Réunion and possibly Mauritius, Mascarenes, 1834?)
- Last known individual was a captive bird which was alive before 1834.
- Broad-billed Parrot, Lophopsittacus mauritianus (Mauritius, Mascarenes, 1680?)
- May have survived to the late 18th century.
- Rodrigues Parrot, Necropsittacus rodericanus (Rodrigues, Mascarenes, late 18th century)
- The species N. francicus is fictional, N. borbonicus most likely so.
- Glaucous Macaw, Anodorhynchus glaucus (N Argentina, early 20th century)
- Officially critically endangered due to persistent rumours of wild birds, but probably extinct.
- Cuban Red Macaw, Ara tricolor (Cuba, West Indies, late 19th century)
- A number of related species have been described from the West Indies, but are not based on good evidence. Several prehistoric forms are now known to have existed in the region, however.
- Carolina Parakeet, Conuropsis carolinensis (SE North America, c. 1930?)
- Although the date of the last captive bird's death in the Cincinnati Zoo, 1918, is generally given as extinction date, there are convincing reports of some wild populations persisting until later. Two subspecies, C. c. carolinensis (east and south of the Appalachian range - extinct 1918 or c. 1930) and C. c. ludovicianus (Louisiana Parakeet, west of the Appalachian range - extinct early 1910s).
- Guadeloupe Parakeet, Aratinga labati (Guadeloupe, West Indies, late 18th century)
- Only known from descriptions, the former existence of this bird is likely for biogeographic reasons and because details as described cannot be referred to known species.
- Sinú Parakeet, Pyrrhura subandina (Colombia, mid-20th century?)
- Recently recognized as a distinct species, this bird has a very restricted distribution and was last reliably recorded in 1940. It was not found during searches in 2004 and 2006 and seems to be extinct; relocation efforts continue but are hampered by the threat of armed conflict.
- Martinique Amazon, Amazona martinica (Martinique, West Indies, mid-18th century)
- Guadeloupe Amazon, Amazona violacea (Guadeloupe, West Indies, mid-18th century)
- The extinct amazon parrots were originally described after travelers' descriptions. Both are now considered valid extinct species closely related to the Imperial Amazon.
- Delalande's Coua, Coua delalandei (Madagascar, late 19th century?)
- Saint Helena Cuckoo, Nannococcyx psix (Saint Helena, Atlantic, 18th century)
- Cuban Kite, Chondrohierax wilsonii (Cuba, West Indies, early 2000s?)
- Often considered a subspecies of the Hook-billed Kite, it is at least critically endangered. While a small remnant probably survives in eastern Cuba, it has not been seen for some years; recent efforts to find the birds have hitherto drawn a blank but continue.
- The Bermuda Hawk, Bermuteo avivorus, known from Late Quaternary bones from Bermuda (W Atlantic), might have survived to the early 17th century [navedi vir]
- Guadalupe Caracara, Polyborus lutosus (Guadelupe, E Pacific, 1900 or 1903)
- Réunion Kestrel, Falco duboisi (Réunion, Mascarenes, c. 1700)
- Réunion Owl, Mascarenotus grucheti (Réunion, Mascarenes, late 17th century?)
- Mauritius Owl, Mascarenotus sauzieri (Mauritus, Mascarenes, c. 1850)
- Rodrigues Owl, Mascarenotus murivorus (Rodrigues, Mascarenes, mid-18th century)
- The preceding two species were variously placed in Bubo, Athene, "Scops" (=Otus), Strix, and Tyto before their true affinity was realized.
- New Caledonian Boobook, Ninox cf. novaeseelandiae (New Caledonia, Melanesia)
- Known only from prehistoric bones, but might still survive.
- Laughing Owl, Sceloglaux albifacies (New Zealand, 1914?)
- Two subspecies, S. a. albifacies (South Island and Stewart Island, extinct 1914?) and S. a. rufifacies (North Island, extinct c. 1870s?) - circumstantial evidence suggests small remnants survived until the early/mid-20th century.
- The Puerto Rican Barn-owl, Tyto cavatica, known from prehistoric remains found in caves of Puerto Rico, West Indies, may still have existed in 1912 given reports of the presence of cave-roosting owls.
- The Bahaman Barn-owl, Tyto pollens, known from prehistoric remains found on Andros (Bahamas), may have survived to the 16th century as indicated by the "Chickcharnie" legend.
- Siau Scops-owl Otus siaoensis (20th century?)
- Only known from the holotype collected in 1866. Endemic to the small volcanic island of Siau north of Sulawesi in Indonesia. Might still survive as there are ongoing rumours of scops-owls at Siau.
Caprimulgidae - Nightjars and nighthawks.
Reclusive ground-nesting birds that sally out at night to hunt for large insects and similar prey. They are easily located by the males' song, but this is not given all year. Habitat destruction represents currently the biggest threat, while island populations are threatened by introduced mammalian predators, notably dogs, cats, pigs and mongoose.
- Jamaican Pauraque, Siphonorhis americana (Jamaica, West Indies, late 19th century?)
- Reports of unidentifiable nightjars from the 1980s in habitat appropriate for S. americana suggest that this cryptic species may still exist. Research into this possibility is currently underway; pending further information, it is classified as critically endangered, possibly extinct.
- Cuban Pauraque, Siphonorhis daiquiri (Cuba, West Indies, prehistoric?)
- Described from subfossil bones in 1985. There are persistent rumors that this bird, which was never seen alive by scientists, may still survive. Compare Puerto Rican Nightjar and preceding.
Vaurie's Nightjar (Caprimulgus centralasicus) is only known from a single 1929 specimen from Xinjiang, China. It has never been found again, but the validity of this supposed species is seriously disputed. It was never refuted to be an immature female desert European Nightjar.
The Nechisar Nightjar (Caprimulgus solala) is known only from a single preserved wing of a bird roadkilled on the Nechisar plains in Ethiopia in 1990. Unlikely to be extinct, no dedicated effort has been made to relocate it.
- Coppery Thorntail, Discosura letitiae (Bolivia?)
- Known only from 3 trade specimens of unknown origin. Might still exist.
- Brace's Emerald, Chlorostilbon bracei (New Providence, Bahamas, late 19th century)
- Gould's Emerald, Chlorostilbon elegans (Jamaica or northern Bahamas, West Indies, late 19th century)
- Alfaro's Hummingbird, Amazilia alfaroana (Costa Rica, c.1900)
- Sometimes separated in Saucerottia and/or considered a subspecies of the Indigo-capped Hummingbird (as A./S. cyanifrons alfaroana), this bird is known only from a late 19th century specimen and has never been seen since.
- Bogota Sunangel, Heliangelus zusii (Colombia?)
- A mysterious bird known only from a single specimen of unknown origin. Might be a hybrid (although the specimen is very distinct) or might still exist.
- Turquoise-throated Puffleg, Eriocnemis godini (Ecuador, 20th century?)
- Officially classified as critically endangered, possibly extinct. Known only from 6 pre-1900 specimens, the habitat at the only known site where it occurred has been destroyed. However, the bird's distribution remains unresolved.
Kingfishers and related birds.
- Ryūkyū Kingfisher, Todiramphus (cinnamominus) miyakoensis (Miyako-jima, Ryukyu Islands, late 19th century)
- This was probably a subspecies of the Micronesian Kingfisher Todiramphus cinnamominus. Only seen once by scientists, in 1887; the specimen taken is somewhat damaged, making identification by other than molecular analysis difficult.
- Giant Hoopoe, Upupa antaois (Saint Helena, Atlantic, early 16th century)
Woodpeckers and related birds.
- Imperial Woodpecker, Campephilus imperialis (Mexico, late 20th century)
- This 60-centimeter-long woodpecker is officially listed as critically endangered, possibly extinct. Occasional unconfirmed reports come up, the most recent in late 2005.
- There is much uncertainty on whether the North American Ivory-billed Woodpecker (Campephilus principalis principalis) was indeed rediscovered in the White River National Wildlife Refuge of Arkansas in 2004. The Cuban Ivory-billed Woodpecker (Campephilus principalis bairdii) was last seen in 1987 and is generally considered extinct, but there are a few patches of habitat not yet surveyed.
Acanthisittidae - New Zealand "wrens"
- Stephens Island Wren, Xenicus lyalli (New Zealand, 1895?)
- The species famously (but erroneously) claimed to have been made extinct by a single cat named "Tibbles".
- Bush Wren, Xenicus longipes (New Zealand, 1972)
- 3 subspecies: X. l. stokesi (North Island, extinct 1955); X. l. longipes (South Island, extinct 1968); X. l. variabilis (Stewart Island, extinct 1972).
Formicariidae – antpittas and antthrushes
- Táchira Antpitta, Grallaria chthonia (Venezuela, late 20th century?)
- Officially Critically Endangered, this species has not been recorded since 1956 and although some habitat still exists, it was not found in dedicated searches in the 1990s. Nevertheles, its voice – generally the primary mean for locating antpittas – remains unknown, making surveys difficult.
Mohoidae – Hawaiian "honeyeaters". Family established in 2008, previously included in Meliphagidae.
- Kioea, Chaetoptila angustipluma (Big Island, Hawaiian Islands, 1860s)
- Hawaiʻi ʻŌʻō, Moho nobilis (Big Island, Hawaiian Islands, 1930s)
- Oʻahu ʻŌʻō, Moho apicalis (Oʻahu, Hawaiian Islands, mid-19th century)
- Molokaʻi ʻŌʻō, Moho bishopi (Molokaʻi and probably Maui, Hawaiian Islands, c. 1910 or 1980s)
- Kauaʻi ʻŌʻō, Moho braccatus (Kauaʻi, Hawaiian Islands, 1987)
Meliphagidae – honeyeaters and Australian chats
- Chatham Island Bellbird, Anthornis melanocephala (Chatham Islands, Southwest Pacific, c. 1910)
- Sometimes regarded as subspecies of the New Zealand Bellbird, Anthornis melanura. Unconfirmed records exist from the early-mid 1950s
Acanthizidae – scrubwrens, thornbills, and gerygones
- Lord Howe Gerygone, Gerygone insularis (Lord Howe Island, Southwest Pacific, c. 1930)
Pachycephalidae – whistlers, shrike-thrushes, pitohuis and allies
- Mangarevan Whistler, ?Pachycephala gambierana (Mangareva, Gambier Islands, late 19th century?)
- A mysterious bird of which no specimen exists today. It was initially described as a shrike, then classified as an Eopsalteria "robin", and may actually be an Acrocephalus warbler.
Dicruridae – monarch flycatchers and allies
- Maupiti Monarch, Pomarea pomarea (Maupiti, Society Islands, mid-19th century)
- Eiao Monarch, Pomarea fluxa (Eiao, Marquesas, late 1970s)
- Previously considered a subspecies of the Iphis Monarch, this is an early offspring of the Marquesan stock.
- Nuku Hiva Monarch, Pomarea nukuhivae (Nuku Hiva, Marquesas, mid-late 20th century)
- Previously considered a subspecies of the Marquesas Monarch, this is another early offspring of the Marquesan stock.
- Ua Pou Monarch, Pomarea mira (Ua Pou, Marquesas, c. 1986)
- Previously considered another subspecies of the Marquesas Monarch, this was a distinct species most closely related to that bird and the Fatuhiva Monarch.
- Guam Flycatcher, Myiagra freycineti (Guam, Marianas, 1983)
Corvidae –} crows, ravens, magpies and jays
- Banggai Crow, Corvus unicolor (Banggai or Peleng Island, Indonesia, 20th century?)
- Officially critically endangered, it is known only from two specimens taken on an unspecified island at some date in the late 19th century, probably in 1884 or 1885. Possible sightings in 1981 and 1991, but no unequivocal recent records and amount of habitat destruction suggest this species is extinct.
Vangidae – vangas
- Short-toed Nuthatch Vanga, Hypositta perdita (Madagascar, mid-20th century?)
- An enigmatic bird known only from 2 recently fledged juveniles collected in 1931, it was not found during a thorough search in 1996.
†Turnagridae – piopios
- North Island Piopio, Turnagra tanagra (North Island, New Zealand, c. 1970?)
- Not reliably recorded since about 1900.
- South Island Piopio, Turnagra capensis (South Island, New Zealand, 1960s?)
- Two subspecies, T. c. minor from Stephens Island (extinct c. 1897) and the nominate T. c. capensis from the South Island mainland (last specimen taken in 1902, last unconfirmed record in 1963)
Callaeidae – New Zealand wattlebirds
- Huia, Heteralocha acutirostris (North Island, New Zealand, early 20th century)
Hirundinidae – swallows and martins
- White-eyed River Martin, Pseudochelidon sirintarae (Thailand, late 1980s?)
- Officially critically endangered, this enigmatic species is only known from migrating birds and it was last seen in 1986 at its former roost site. Recent unconfirmed repors suggest it may occur in Cambodia.
- Red Sea Swallow, Petrochelidon perdita (Red Sea area, late 20th century?)
- Known from a single specimen, this enigmatic swallow probably still exists, but the lack of recent records is puzzling. It is alternatively placed in the genus Hirundo.
Megaluridae – megalurid warblers or grass warblers
- Chatham Islands Fernbird, Bowdleria rufescens (Chatham Islands, New Zealand, c. 1900)
- Often placed in genus Megalurus, but this is based on an incomplete review of the evidence.
Cisticolidae – cisticolas and allies
- Tana River Cisticola, Cisticola restrictus (Kenya, 1970s?)
- A mysterious bird, found in the Tana River basin in small numbers at various dates, but not since 1972. Probably invalid, based on aberrant or hybrid specimens. An unconfirmed sighting was apparently made in 2007 in the Tana River Delta.
Zosteropidae – white-eyes. Probably belong into Timaliidae.
- Lord Howe White-eye, Zosterops strenuus (Lord Howe Island, Southwest Pacific, c. 1918)
Timaliidae – Old World babblers
- Black-browed Babbler, Malacocincla perspicillata (Borneo?, Indonesia, 20th century?)
- Known from a single mid-19th century specimen, this bird may be extinct or could still exist. If the specimen label, usually considered erroneous in claiming "Java" as the bird's origin, is correct, it may have gone extinct earlier.
- Aldabra Brush-warbler, Nesillas aldabrana (Aldabra, Indian Ocean, c. 1984)
Acrocephalidae – marsh- and tree-warblers
- Moorea Reed-warbler, Acrocephalus longirostris - (Moorea, 1980s?)
- Formerly considered a subspecies of the Tahiti Reed-warbler. Last reliable sighting was in 1981. Survey in 1986/1987 remained unsuccessful. A photograph of a warbler from Moorea in 1998 or 1999 taken by Philippe Bacchet remains uncertain.
Muscicapidae – Old World flycatchers and chats
- Rueck's Blue Flycatcher, Cyornis ruckii (Malaysia or Indochina, 20th century?)
- An enigmatic bird known from 2 or 4 possibly migrant specimens, last recorded in 1918. Might exist in NE Indochina and might be a subspecies of the Hainan Blue Flycatcher.
Turdidae – thrushes and allies
- Grand Cayman Thrush, Turdus ravidus (Grand Cayman, West Indies, late 1940s)
- Bonin Thrush, Zoothera terrestris (Chichi-jima, Ogasawara Islands, c. 1830s)
- ʻĀmaui, Myadestes woahensis (Oʻahu, Hawaiian Islands, mid-19th century)
- Kāmaʻo, Myadestes myadestinus (Kauaʻi, Hawaiian Islands, 1990s)
- Olomaʻo, Myadestes lanaiensis (Hawaiian Islands, 1980s?)
- Officially critically endangered, possibly extinct because a possible location on Molokaʻi remains unsurveyed. Two subspecies are known from Lanaʻi (M. l. lanaiensis, extinct early 1930s), Molokaʻi (M. l. rutha, extinct 1980s?) and a possible third subspecies from Maui (extinct before late 19th century).
Sturnidae – starlings
- Kosrae Island Starling, Aplonis corvina (Kosrae, Carolines, mid-19th century)
- Mysterious Starling, Aplonis mavornata (Mauke, Cook Islands, mid-19th century)
- Tasman Starling, Aplonis fusca (Norfolk Island and Lord Howe Island, Southwest Pacific, c. 1923)
- Two subspecies, A. f. fusca - Norfolk Island Starling (extinct c. 1923); A. fusca hulliana - Lord Howe Starling (extinct c. 1919).
- Pohnpei Starling, Aplonis pelzelni (Pohnpei, Micronesia, c. 2000)
- Only one reliable record since 1956, in 1995, leaves the species' survival seriously in doubt.
- Bay Starling, Aplonis? ulietensis (Raiatea, Society Islands, between 1774 and 1850)
- Usually called "Bay Thrush" (Turdus ulietensis); a mysterious bird from Raiatea, now only known from a painting and some descriptions of a (now lost) specimen. Its taxonomic position is thus unresolvable at present, although for biogeographic reasons and because of the surviving description, it has been suggested to have been a honeyeater. However, with the discovery of fossils of the prehistorically extinct starling Aplonis diluvialis on neighboring Huahine, it seems likely that this bird also belonged to this genus.
- Bourbon Crested Starling, Fregilupus varius (Réunion, Mascarenes, 1850s)
- Rodrigues Starling, Necropsar rodericanus (Rodrigues, Mascarenes, late 18th century?)
- The bird variously described as Testudophaga bicolor, Necropsar leguati or Orphanopsar leguati which was considered to be identical with N. rodericanus (which is only known from fossils) was finally resolved to be based on a misidentified partially albinistic specimen of the Martinique Trembler (Cinclocerthia gutturalis)
Mimidae – mockingbirds and thrashers
- Cozumel Thrasher, Toxostoma guttatum (Cozumel, Caribbean, early 2000s?)
- It is still unknown whether the tiny population rediscovered in 2004 survived Hurricanes Emily and Wilma in 2005. Unconfirmed records in April 2006 and October and December 2007.
Estrildidae - estrildid finches (waxbills, munias, etc)
- Black-lored Waxbill, Estrilda nigriloris (D.R. Congo, Africa, late 20th century?)
- An enigmatic waxbill not seen since 1950; because part of its habitat is in Upemba National Park it may survive.
Icteridae – grackles
- Slender-billed Grackle, Quiscalus palustris (Mexico, 1910)
Parulidae – New World warblers
- Bachman's Warbler, Vermivora bachmanii (Southern USA, c. 1990?)
- Officially critically endangered, possibly extinct
- Semper's Warbler, Leucopeza semperi (Saint Lucia, Caribbean, 1970s?)
- Officially Critically Endangered. Suitable habitat remains, and there have been unconfirmed records withint the last decade.
Ploceidae – Weavers
- Réunion Fody, Foudia delloni
- Formerly Foudia bruante, which might refer to a colour morph of the Madagascar Fody.
Fringillidae – true finches and Hawaiian honeycreepers
- Tawny-headed Mountain Finch, Leucosticte sillemi (Xinjiang, mid- or late 20th century?)
- An enigmatic bird known from just 2 specimens collected in 1929. The region where they were taken is politically highly sensitive and consequently difficult to visit. As no threats are known, probably still extant.
- Bonin Grosbeak, Chaunoproctus ferreorostris (Chichi-jima, Ogasawara Islands, 1830s)
- ʻŌʻū, Psittirostra psittacea (Hawaiian Islands, c. 2000?)
- Officially classified as critically endangered, possibly extinct, this was once the most widespread species of Hawaiian honeycreeper. It has not been reliably recorded since 1987 or 1989.
- Lanaʻi Hookbill, Dysmorodrepanis munroi (Lanaʻi, Hawaiian Islands, 1918)
- Pila's Palila, Loxioides kikuichi (Kauaʻi, Hawaiian Islands), possibly survived to the early 18th century.
- Lesser Koa Finch, Rhodacanthus flaviceps (Big Island, Hawaiian Islands, 1891)
- Greater Koa Finch, Rhodacanthus palmeri (Big Island, Hawaiian Islands, 1896)
- Kona Grosbeak, Psittirostra kona (Big Island, Hawaiian Islands, 1894)
- Greater ʻAmakihi, Hemignathus sagittirostris (Big Island, Hawaiian Islands, 1901)
- Nukupuʻu, Hemignathus lucidus (Hawaiian Islands, c. 2000?)
- The subspecies from Oʻahu (H. l. lucidus) has been extinct since the late 19th century, that of Kauaʻi (H. l. hanapepe) most probably since the late 1990s and that of Maui (H. l. affinis) has not been reliably seen since 1995. It is currently classified as critically endangered, possibly extinct.
- Hawaiʻi ʻAkialoa or Lesser ʻAkialoa, Hemignathus obscurus (Big Island, Hawaiian Islands, 1940)
- Sometimes placed in genus Akialoa (as A. obscura).
- Greater ʻAkialoa, Hemignathus ellisianus (Kauaʻi, Oʻahu, Lanaʻi and prehistorically probably Maui and Molokaʻi, Hawaiian Islands, 1969)
- Sometimes placed in genus Akialoa (as A. ellisiana). Often split into Maui Nui ʻAkialoa, H. lanaiensis or A. lanaiensis (Lanaʻi and prehistorically probably Maui and Molokaʻi, Hawaiian Islands, extinct 1892), Oʻahu ʻAkialoa, H. ellisianus or A. ellisiana (Oʻahu, Hawaiian Islands, extinct 1940) and Kauaʻi ʻAkialoa, H. stejnegeri or A. stejnegeri (Kauaʻi, Hawaiian Islands, extinct 1969).
- Kakawahie, Paroreomyza flammea (Molokaʻi, Hawaiian Islands, 1963)
- Oʻahu ʻAlauahio, Paroreomyza maculata (Oʻahu, Hawaiian Islands, early 1990s?)
- Officially classified as critically endangered, possibly extinct. Last reliable record was in 1985, with an unconfirmed sighting in 1990.
- ʻUla-ʻai-hawane, Ciridops anna (Big Island, Hawaiian Islands, 1892 or 1937)
- Black Mamo, Drepanis funerea (Molokaʻi, Hawaiian Islands, 1907)
- Hawaiʻi Mamo, Drepanis pacifica (Big Island, Hawaiian Islands, 1898)
- Poʻo-uli, Melamprosops phaeosoma (Maui, Hawaiian Islands, 2004?)
- The most recent unequivocal extinction on this list. What was most likely the last known bird died in captivity on 28 November 2004.
Emberizidae – buntings and American sparrow
- Hooded Seedeater, Sporophila melanops (Brazil, 20th century?)
- Officially classified as critically endangered, possibly extinct. It is known only from a single male collected in 1823, and has variously been considered an aberrant Yellow-bellied Seedeater or a hybrid.
- Antioquia Brush-finch, Atlapetes blancae (Antioquia, Colombia?)
- mysterious bird formerly misidentified as Slaty Brush-finch described in 2007 on basis of three 20th century museum specimens.
Glej tudi[uredi | uredi kodo]
- Flightless birds
- Seznam fisilov ptic
- Prazgodovinske ptice poznega kvartarja
- Lazarus species
- Seznam izumrlih živali
- Origin of birds
Opombe[uredi | uredi kodo]
- BLI (2008)
Reference[uredi | uredi kodo]
- BirdLife International (BLI) (2008): Globally Threatened Forums – Sharpe's Rail (Gallirallus sharpei): no longer recognised taxonomically. Version of 2008-NOV-24. Retrieved 2008-DEC-16.
- Fuller, Errol (2000): Extinct Birds (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press, Oxford, New York. ISBN 0198508379
- Spennemann, Dirk H.R. (2006): Extinctions and extirpations in Marshall Islands avifauna since European contact – a review of historic evidence. Micronesica 38(2): 253–266. PDF fulltext
Zunanje povezave[uredi | uredi kodo]
- The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
- Extinct Birds Stock Photography
- Extinct Birds from John James Audubon's Birds of America
- New Zealand Extinct Birds List
- The Extinction Website
- Naturalis - Extinct Birds: 3D images of extinct bird species in the collection of the National Museum of Natural History (Leiden, Netherlands).