Uporabnik:Matjazgregoric/peskovnik

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To ni prava Wikipedija stran. To je moj peskovnik, kjer se igram.


Po uporabi vakuumske terapije.

Vakuumska terapija, imenovana tudi terapija z vakuumskimi kozarčki in terapija ventuza, je oblika zdravilstva z uporabo lokalnega sesanja kože. Vakuumska terapija ima značilnosti psevdoznanosti.[1][2] O pozitivnem vplivu na zdravje ni dokazov, obstaja pa tveganje poškodb, predvsem pri mokri in ognjeni vakuumski terapiji.

Učinkovitost[uredi | uredi kodo]

Vakuumska terapija ni podprta z znanstvenimi podatki. V preglednih člankih leta 2014 in 2011 so raziskovalci ugotovili, da je zaradi nerazumne oblike metode in slabe kvalitete raziskav, podpora vakuumski terapiji v klinične namene zelo nizka.[3] Ameriška organizacija "American Cancer Society", ki se posveča boju proti raku, trdi da trenutni podatku ne podpirajo trditev o zdravstvenih učinkih vakuumske terapije in, da terapija prinaša majhno tveganje ožganin.[4] Fizik in komunikator znanosti Simon Singh ter zdravnik in raziskovalec zdravilstva Edzard Ernst sta v svoji knjigi "Trick or Treatment" leta 2008 zapisala, da ne obstajajo dokazi, ki bi kazali na zdravstvene učinke vakuumske terapije za katerikoli zdravstveni namen.[5]

Vakuumsko terapijo nekateri označujejo za šarlatanstvo.[2] Kritiki alternativne medicine, kot sta Harriet Hall in Mark Crislip, so vakuumsko terapijo označili za "psevdoznanstveno neumnost", "neumnost slavnih" in "blebetanje", ter trdijo, da ni dokazov, da bi vakuumska terapija delovala bolje kot placebo.[6][7] Farmakolog David Colquhoun piše, da je vakuumska terapija smešna in povsem neverodostojna.[8] Kirurg David Gorski meni, da gre za tveganje brez koristi, ter da v sodobni medicini nima mesta ali ga vsaj ne bi smel imeti.[9]

Zgodovina in metode[uredi | uredi kodo]

Set za vakuumsko terapijo in spuščanj krvi, London, Anglija, datirano na 1860–1875.
An illustration from the medical textbook Exercitationes practicae, published in 1694, shows a man undergoing cupping on his buttocks

The origin of cupping is unclear. For over 3,000 years, the practice has been typically performed unsupervised, by individuals without any medical background.[navedi vir] Iranian traditional medicine uses wet-cupping practices, with the belief that cupping with scarification may eliminate scar tissue, and cupping without scarification would cleanse the body through the organs.[10] Individuals with a profound interest in the practice are typically very religious and seek "purification."[navedi vir]

There is reason to believe the practice dates from as early as 3000 BC.[navedi vir] The Ebers Papyrus, written c. 1550 BC and one of the oldest medical textbooks in the Western world, describes the Egyptians' use of cupping, while mentioning similar practices employed by Saharan peoples.[navedi vir] In ancient Greece, Hippocrates (c. 400 BC) used cupping for internal disease and structural problems. The method was highly recommended by Muhammad[11] and hence well-practiced by Muslim scientists who elaborated and developed the method further. Consecutively, this method in its multiple forms spread into medicine throughout Asian and European civilizations. In China, the earliest use of cupping that is recorded is from the famous Taoist alchemist and herbalist, Ge Hong (281–341 A.D.).[12] Cupping was also mentioned in Maimonides' book on health and was used within the Eastern European Jewish community.[13]

Od 2012 cupping was most popular in China. Cupping has been a formal modality in Chinese hospitals since 1950.[14]

While details vary between practitioners, societies, and cultures, the practice consists of drawing tissue into a cap placed on the targeted area by creating a partial vacuum – either by the heating and subsequent cooling of the air in the cup, or via a mechanical pump.[15] The cup is usually left in place for somewhere between five and fifteen minutes.

Cupping therapy types can be classified using four distinct methods of categorisation. The first system of categorisation relates to "technical types" including: dry, wet, massage, and flash cupping therapy. The second categorisation relates to "the power of suction related types" including: light, medium, and strong cupping therapy. The third categorisation relates to "the method of suction related types" including: fire, manual suction, and electrical suction cupping therapy. The fourth categorisation relates to "materials inside cups" including: herbal products, water, ozone, moxa, needle, and magnetic cupping therapy.[16]

Further categories of cupping were developed later. The fifth relates to area treated including: facial, abdominal, female, male, and orthopedic cupping therapy. The sixth relates to "other cupping types" that include sports and aquatic cupping.[17]

Cups of various materials
Glass 
Plastic 
Bamboo 
Horn/Copper 
Bronze 

Dry cupping[uredi | uredi kodo]

Postopek vakuumske terapije običajno vključuje ustvarjanje majhnega območja nizkega zračnega podtlaka poleg kože. Obstajajo pa razlike v uporabljenih orodjih, metodah ustvarjanja podtlaka in v postopkih po terapiji.[18]

Vakuumska terapija z ognjem[uredi | uredi kodo]

A person receiving fire cupping

Vakuumska terapija z ognjem vkljucuje namakanje bombažne kroglice v skoraj cisti alkohol. Bombaž držijo s pinceto, ga prižganga položijo v skodelico in hitro odstranijo, skodelica pa se nato hitro položi na kožo. Ogenj porabi ves kisik v skodelici, kar ustvarja negativen pritisk znotraj skodelice, kar "sesa" kožo v skodelico. Vcasih se za boljše tesnjenje dodatno uporablja masažno olje, ki hkrati omogoca lažje drsenje po mišicnih skupinah. Zaradi pokanja kapilar se lahko na mestu, kjer so bile pritrjene skodelice, pojavijo podpludbe v obliki temnih krogov. Dokumentirani so tudi primeri opeklin.[19][20]

Wet cupping[uredi | uredi kodo]

Wet cupping is also known as Hijama (arabsko حجامة lit. "sucking") or medicinal bleeding, where blood is drawn by local suction from a small skin incision.[21]

Wet cupping, unlike dry cupping, requires a skin incision. The skin incision can be made either before or after cupping treatment. The cup is meant to suck out any impurities in the body which may include blood, toxins, fragmented blood cells, and tissue fluid.[navedi vir]

Stranski učinki[uredi | uredi kodo]

Čeprav je vakuumska terapija kot zdravstveni poseg neučinkovita, lahko njena uporaba včasih prinaša nevšečnosti. Suha vakuumska terapija je v glavnem varna, ko jo izvajajo na zdravih ljudeh, vendar se naj ne bi uporabljala pri nosečnicah, pacientih s tuberkulozo in tumorji[22], in pri pacientih s sončnimi opeklinami, ožganinami ali drugimi svežimi ranami[23].

Krvava vakuumska terapija se naj ne bi izvajala pri ljudeh s hemofilijo, krvno anemijo in menstruacijo ter pri tistih, ki trpijo za problemi srca in ožilja.[24]

Vakuumska terapija z ognjem lahko povzroči ožganine, ki v redkih primerih vodijo v hospitalizacijo in transplantacijo kože.

Položaj v družbi danes[uredi | uredi kodo]

V sodobnem času je vakuumska terapija pridobila večjo prepoznavnost zaradi javne uporabe s strani ameriških športnih zvezdnikov, med njimi so igralec ameriškega nogometna DeMarcus Ware in olimpijci Alexander Naddour, Natalie Coughlin in Michael Phelps[25]. Ameriški zdravnik Brad McKay je zapisal, da je olimpijska ekipa ZDA svojim oboževalcem naredila škodo s tem, saj bi ti lahko sledili praksi njenih članov, hkrati je to terapijo imenoval "starodavna (a neuporabna) tradicionalna terapija"[26]. Ameriški nevrokirurg in skeptični aktivist Steven Novella je zapisal, da je škoda, da so elitni športi, vključno z olimpijskimi igrami, tako vroča postelja za psevdoznanost"[27].

V eseju Georga Orwella "Kako ubogi umrejo" je avtor presenečeno ugotovil, da to izvajajo v pariški bolnišnici[28].

See also[uredi | uredi kodo]

References[uredi | uredi kodo]

  1. Crislip, Mark (24 December 2014). "Acupuncture Odds and Ends". Science-Based Medicine. Pridobljeno dne 8 August 2016. 
  2. 2,0 2,1 Hall, Harriet (21 August 2012). "Quackery and Mumbo-Jumbo in the U.S. Military". Slate. 
  3. Chen, B; Li, MY; Liu, PD; Guo, Y; Chen, ZL (July 2015). "Alternative medicine: an update on cupping therapy.". QJM : Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians 108 (7): 523–5. PMID 25399022. doi:10.1093/qjmed/hcu227. 
  4. Russell J; Rovere A, ur. (2009). "Cupping". American Cancer Society Complete Guide to Complementary and Alternative Cancer Therapies (2nd izd.). American Cancer Society. str. 189–191. ISBN 9780944235713. 
  5. Singh, Simon; Ernst, Edzard (2008). Trick or Treatment. Transworld Publishers. str. 368. ISBN 978-0-552-15762-9. 
  6. Crislip, Mark (24 December 2014). "Acupuncture Odds and Ends". Science-Based Medicine. Pridobljeno dne 8 August 2016. 
  7. Hall, Harriet. "Therapy or Injury? Your Tax Dollars at Work.". Science-Based Medicine. Pridobljeno dne 8 August 2016. 
  8. Online Editors (8 August 2016). "Revealed - Why some Olympic athletes have those little red marks on them". Irish Independent. 
  9. Gorski, David (July 1, 2016). "What's the harm? Cupping edition". Respectful Insolence. Science-Based Medicine. Pridobljeno dne 8 August 2016. 
  10. Nimrouzi M; Mahbodi A; Jaladat AM; Sadeghfard A; Zarshenas MM (2014). "Hijama in traditional Persian medicine: risks and benefits.". J Evid Based Complementary Altern Med 19 (2): 128–36. PMID 24647093. doi:10.1177/2156587214524578. 
  11. Napaka pri navajanju: Neveljavna oznaka <ref>; sklici poimenovani indeed22 ne vsebujejo besedila (glej stran pomoči).
  12. Dharmananda, Subhuti. "Cupping". itmonline.org. Institute for Traditional Medicine. Pridobljeno dne 2016-08-10. 
  13. Ingall, Marjorie (2016-08-11). "Everything You Ever Wanted to Know About Cupping—and Some Stuff You Probably Didn't". Tablet Magazine. Pridobljeno dne 2016-08-14. 
  14. Cao, Huijuan; Li, Xun; Liu, Jianping (2012). "An updated review of the efficacy of cupping therapy". PLOS ONE 7 (2): e31793. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 3289625. PMID 22389674. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0031793. 
  15. "What is cupping therapy". WebMD. Pridobljeno dne 15 August 2016. 
  16. Shaban, Tamer (2013). Cupping Therapy Encyclopedia. CreateSpace. str. 29. ISBN 978-1494780517. 
  17. "Classification of Cupping Therapy: A Tool for Modernization and Standardization (PDF Download Available)". ResearchGate (angleščina). Pridobljeno dne 2017-03-29. 
  18. Cui Jin and Zhang Guangqi, "A survey of thirty years’ clinical application of cupping", Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine 1989; 9(3): 151–154
  19. Iblher, N.; Stark, B. (2007). "Cupping treatment and associated burn risk: a plastic surgeon's perspective". J Burn Care Res 28 (2): 355–8. PMID 17351459. doi:10.1097/BCR.0B013E318031A267. 
  20. Sagi, A.; Ben-Meir, P.; Bibi, C. (Aug 1988). "Burn hazard from cupping--an ancient universal medication still in practice". Burns Incl Therm Inj 14 (4): 323–5. PMID 3224303. doi:10.1016/0305-4179(88)90075-7. 
  21. Albinali, Hajar (June 2004). "Traditional Medicine Among Gulf Arabs Part II - Blood Letting". Heart Views 5 (2): 74–85. Arhivirano iz prvotnega spletišča dne 11 September 2007. 
  22. Hedwig Piotrowski-Manz: Die Kunst des Schröpfens, Basiswissen und Praxis. 3. Auflage. Sonntag Verlag, Stuttgart 2004, ISBN 3-8304-9091-7, S. 72.
  23. Ilkay Zihni Chirali: Schröpftherapie in der Chinesischen Medizin. 1. Auflage. Urban & Fischer, München 2002, ISBN 3-437-56250-9, S. 201.
  24. Hedwig Piotrowski-Manz: Die Kunst des Schröpfens, Basiswissen und Praxis. 3. Auflage. Sonntag Verlag, Stuttgart 2004, ISBN 3-8304-9091-7, S. 76.
  25. Reynolds, Gretchen; Crouse, Karen (August 8, 2016). "What Are the Purple Dots on Michael Phelps? Cupping Has an Olympic Moment". Well. The New York Times. Pridobljeno dne 8 August 2016. 
  26. McKay, Brad (August 9, 2016). "Why Team USA's use of cupping therapy really sucks". News.com.au. Pridobljeno dne 9 August 2016. 
  27. Novella, Steven (August 10, 2016). "Cupping – Olympic Pseudoscience". Science Based Medicine. 
  28. Orwell, George (November 1946). "How the Poor Die". Now. Pridobljeno dne 10 August 2016. As I lay down I saw on a bed nearly opposite me a small, round-shouldered, sandy-haired man sitting half naked while a doctor and a student performed some strange operation on him. First the doctor produced from his black bag a dozen small glasses like wine glasses, then the student burned a match inside each glass to exhaust the air, then the glass was popped on to the man's back or chest and the vacuum drew up a huge yellow blister. Only after some moments did I realize what they were doing to him. It was something called cupping, a treatment which you can read about in old medical text-books but which till then I had vaguely thought of as one of those things they do to horses. 

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