Pomoč:IPA za angleščino

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V Wikipediji je izgovorjava angleških besed posredovana s pomočjo Mednarodne fonetične abecede (IPA). (Če vaš spletno brskalnik nepravilno prikazuje IPA simbole, glejte povezave na dnu te strani.)

Ključ[uredi | uredi kodo]

Opomba: IPA naglasno znamenje (ˈ) se nahaja pred zlogom, ki vsebuje naglas, v nasprotju z označevanjem naglasov v nekaterih slovarjih izdanih v ZDA.

(Besede zapisane z MAJHNIMI VELIKIMI ČRKAMI so standardni leksikalen nabor angleških besed.)

IPA Primeri
b buy, cab
d dye, cad, do
ð thy, breathe, father
giant, badge, jam
f phi, caff, fan
ɡ (ɡ)[1] guy, bag
h high, ahead
j[2] yes, yacht
k sky, crack
l lie, sly, gal
m my, smile, cam
n nigh, snide, can
ŋ sang, sink, singer
θ thigh, math
p pie, spy, cap
r rye, try, very[3]
s sigh, mass
ʃ shy, cash, emotion
t tie, sty, cat, atom
China, catch
v vie, have
w wye, swine
hw why[4]
z zoo, has
ʒ equation, pleasure, vision, beige[5]
Marginal consonants
x ugh, loch, Chanukah[6]
ʔ uh-oh /ˈʔʌʔoʊ/
IPA »krepki« samoglasniki ... ki jim sledi R[7][8]
ɑː PALM, father, bra ɑr START, bard, barn, snarl, star (tudi /ɑːr./)
ɒ LOT, pod, John[9] ɒr moral, forage
æ TRAP, pad, shall, ban [10] ær barrow, marry[11]
PRICE, ride, file, fine, pie[12] aɪər Ireland, sapphire (/aɪr./)[8]
MOUTH, loud, foul, down, how aʊər hour (/aʊr./)[8]
ɛ DRESS, bed, fell, men[13] ɛr error, merry[13]
FACE, made, fail, vein, pay ɛər SQUARE, scared, scarce, cairn, Mary (/eɪr./)[14][8]
ɪ KIT, lid, fill, bin ɪr mirror, Sirius
FLEECE, seed, feel, mean, sea ɪər NEAR, beard, fierce, serious (/iːr./)[15]
ɔː THOUGHT, Maud, dawn, fall, straw[16] ɔr NORTH, born, war, Laura (/ɔːr./)
ɔɪ CHOICE, void, foil, coin, boy ɔɪər loir, coir (/ɔɪr./)[8]
GOAT, code, foal, bone, go[17] ɔər FORCE, boar, more, oral (/oʊr./)[18]
ʊ FOOT, good, full, woman ʊr courier
GOOSE, food, fool, soon, chew, do ʊər boor, moor, tourist (/uːr./)[19]
juː cued, cute, mule, tune, queue, you[20] jʊər cure
ʌ STRUT, mud, dull, gun[21] ʌr borough, hurry
ɜr NURSE, word, girl, fern, furry (/ɝː/)[22]
»visoki« samoglasniki
ə Rosa’s, a mission, comma ər LETTER, perceive (tudi /ɚ/)[22]
ɨ roses, emission[23] (ali ɪ ali ə) ən button
ɵ omission[24] (ali ali ə) əm rhythm
ʉ beautiful, curriculum ([jʉ])[25] (ali ʊ ali ə) əl bottle
i HAPPY, serious[26] (ali ɪ ali i(ː)) ᵊ, ⁱ (samoglasnik je pogosto izpuščen: nasturtium)
Naglas Razzlogovanje
IPA Zgledi IPA Zgledi
ˈ intonation /ˌɪntɵˈneɪʃən/,[27]
battleship /ˈbætəlʃɪp/[28]
. hire /ˈhaɪər/, higher /ˈhaɪ.ər/
moai /ˈmoʊ.aɪ/, Windhoek /ˈvɪnt.hʊk/
Vancouveria /væn.kuːˈvɪəriə/
Mikey /ˈmaɪki/, Myki /ˈmaɪ.kiː/[29]

Glej tudi[uredi | uredi kodo]

  • Če vaš brskalnik ne prikazuje IPA simbolov, morate verjetno instalirati font, ki vsebzuje IPA. Prosto dostopne IPA fonte vključuje Gentium in Charis SIL (popolnejši); monospaced font je Everson Mono, ki je popoln.

Opombe[uredi | uredi kodo]

  1. ^ If the two characters ⟨ɡ⟩ and ⟨Opentail g.svg⟩ do not match and if the first looks like a ⟨γ⟩, then you have an issue with your default font. See Rendering issues.
  2. ^ The IPA value of the letter ⟨j⟩ is counter-intuitive to many English speakers. However, it does occur with this sound in a few English words, such as hallelujah and Jägermeister.
  3. ^ Although the IPA symbol [r] represents a trill, /r/ is widely used instead of /ɹ/ in broad transcriptions of English.
  4. ^ The phoneme /hw/ is not distinguished from /w/ in the many dialects with the wine–whine merger, such as RP and most varieties of GenAm. For more information on this sound, see voiceless labio-velar approximant.
  5. ^ A number of English words, such as genre and garage, are pronounced with either /ʒ/ or /dʒ/.
  6. ^ In most dialects, /x/ is replaced by /k/ in most words, including loch. In ugh, however, it is often replaced by /ɡ/ (a spelling pronunciation), and in Chanukah by /h/
  7. ^ In non-rhotic accents like RP, /r/ is not pronounced unless followed by a vowel. In some Wikipedia articles, /ɪər/ etc. may not be distinguished from /ɪr/ etc. When they are distinguished, the long vowels are sometimes transcribed /iːr/ etc. by analogy with vowels not followed by /r/. These should be fixed to correspond with the chart here.
  8. ^ 8,0 8,1 8,2 8,3 8,4 Note that many speakers distinguish monosyllabic triphthongs with R and disyllabic realizations: hour /ˈaʊər/ from plougher /ˈplaʊ.ər/, hire /ˈhaɪər/ from higher /ˈhaɪ.ər/, loir /ˈlɔɪər/ from employer /ɨmˈplɔɪ.ər/, mare /ˈmɛər/ from player /ˈpleɪ.ər/.
  9. ^ /ɒ/ is not distinguished from /ɑː/ in dialects with the father–bother merger such as GenAm.
  10. ^ In some regions (including California), what would normally be [æŋ] is pronounced as [eŋ] or [eɪŋ], so that the "a" in "rang" is closer to the "ai" in "rain" than the "a" in "rag"
  11. ^ Pronounced the same as /ɛr/ in accents with the Mary–marry–merry merger.
  12. ^ Many speakers, for example in most of Canada and much of the United States, have a different vowel in price and ride. Generally, an [aɪ] is used at the ends of words and before voiced sounds, as in ride, file, fine, pie, while an [ʌɪ] is used before voiceless sounds, as in price and write. Because /t/ and /d/ are often conflated in the middle of words in these dialects, derivatives of these words, such as rider and writer, may be distinguished only by their vowel: [ˈɹʷɾəɹ], [ˈɹʷʌɪɾəɹ]. However, even though the value of /aɪ/ is not predictable in some words, such as spider [ˈspʌɪɾəɹ],[navedi vir] dictionaries do not generally record it, so it has not been allocated a separate transcription here.
  13. ^ 13,0 13,1 Transcribed as /e/ by many dictionaries.[1]
  14. ^ Pronounced the same as /ɛr/ in accents with the Mary–marry–merry merger. Often transcribed as /eə/ by British dictionaries and as /er/ by American ones. The OED uses /ɛː/ for BrE and /ɛ(ə)r/ for AmE.[2]
  15. ^ Same as /ɪr/ in accents with the mirror–nearer merger.
  16. ^ /ɔː/ is not distinguished from /ɒ/ (except before /r/) in dialects with the cot–caught merger such as some varieties of GenAm.
  17. ^ Commonly transcribed /əʊ/ or /oː/.
  18. ^ /ɔər/ is not distinguished from /ɔr/ in dialects with the horse–hoarse merger, which include most dialects of modern English.
  19. ^ /ʊər/ is not distinguished from /ɔr/ in dialects with the pour–poor merger, including many younger speakers.
  20. ^ In dialects with yod dropping, /juː/ is pronounced the same as /uː/ after coronal consonants (/t/, /d/, /s/, /z/, /n/, /θ/, and /l/) in the same syllable, so that dew /djuː/ is pronounced the same as do /duː/. In dialects with yod coalescence, /tj/, /dj/, /sj/ and /zj/ are pronounced /tʃ/, /dʒ/, /ʃ/ and /ʒ/, so that the first syllable in Tuesday is pronounced the same as choose.
  21. ^ This phoneme is not used in the northern half of England, some bordering parts of Wales, and some broad eastern Ireland accents. These words would take the ʊ vowel: there is no foot–strut split.
  22. ^ 22,0 22,1 In some articles /ɜr/ is transcribed as /ɝː/, and /ər/ as /ɚ/, when not followed by a vowel.
  23. ^ Pronounced [ə] in Australian and many US dialects, and [ɪ] in Received Pronunciation. Many speakers freely alternate between a reduced [ɪ̈] and a reduced [ə]. Many phoneticians (vd. Olive & Greenwood 1993:322) and the OED use the pseudo-IPA symbol ⟨ɪ[3], and Merriam–Webster uses ⟨ə̇⟩.
  24. ^ Pronounced [ə] in many dialects, and [ɵw] or [əw] before another vowel, as in cooperate. Sometimes pronounced as a full /oʊ/, especially in careful speech. (Bolinger 1989) Usually transcribed as /ə(ʊ)/ (or similar ways of showing variation between /oʊ/ and /ə/) in British dictionaries.
  25. ^ Pronounced [ʊ] in many dialects, [ə] in others. Many speakers freely alternate between a reduced [ʊ̈] and a reduced [ə]. The OED uses the pseudo-IPA symbol ⟨ʊ[4].
  26. ^ Pronounced [i(ː)] in dialects with the happy tensing, [ɪ] in other dialects. British convention used to transcribe it with ⟨ɪ⟩, but the OED and other influential dictionaries recently converted to ⟨i⟩.
  27. ^ It is arguable that there is no phonemic distinction in English between primary and secondary stress (vd. Ladefoged 1993), but it is conventional to notate them as here.
  28. ^ Full vowels following a stressed syllable, such as the ship in battleship, are marked with secondary stress in some dictionaries (Merriam-Webster), but not in others (the OED). Such syllables are not actually stressed.
  29. ^ Syllables are indicated sparingly, where necessary to avoid confusion, for example to break up sequences of vowels (moai) or consonant clusters which an English speaker might misread as a digraph (Vancouveria, Windhoek).

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